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The Second Industrial Revolution has Brought Modern Social and Economic Developments

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  • Mohajan, Haradhan

Abstract

The American Industrial Revolution (IR) is considered as the Second IR (IR2) which creates rural to an urban society. Great inventions during the IR2 are electricity, internal combustion engine, the chemical industries, petroleum and other chemicals, alloys, electrical communication technologies, and running water with indoor plumbing. The development of steel and oil refining has affected US industry. Transportation and communications technology has changed business practices and daily life style of many people. Inventions of medicine and medical instruments have reduced the rates of infections and death from many diseases and public health has improved greatly. Global political, economic, and social systems have widely changed very rapidly. Between 1820 and 1920 about 33 million people, mainly labors, have migrated to the USA for seeking greater economic opportunity and cities become overcrowded. Low wage, dangerous working conditions, long working hours, child labor, discrimination in wages, etc. have created labor dissatisfaction. Moreover jobless and wage cut of labors railroad strike has broke out in many cities of the USA. An attempt has taken in this study to discuss aspects of the IR2.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohajan, Haradhan, 2019. "The Second Industrial Revolution has Brought Modern Social and Economic Developments," MPRA Paper 98209, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 26 Dec 2019.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:98209
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/98209/1/MPRA_paper_98209.pdf
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    Keywords

    Second Industrial Revolution; innovation and invention; electricity; steel; oil and petroleum; economic development; railroad strike;

    JEL classification:

    • B3 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought: Individuals
    • L5 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy

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