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Air and Sea Transport: Competition Strategies Under Normal and Economic Crisis Environments


  • Rigas, Konstantinos
  • Sambracos, Evangelos
  • Gatzoli, Androniki


Air and sea passenger transport were generally considered as serving different market segments with little competition between them. Recent research has however shown that the existence of a deregulated operating framework can lead to improved competition between the two modes. This article aims first to identify the circumstances under which air and sea transport compete. The second step is to further examine possible reactions to increase their competitive relationship. The Greek Aegean region presents an interesting case study due to its morphology and seasonal demand characteristics. The question on competitive strategies has become even more essential in an environment of economic crisis as that existing currently in the region.

Suggested Citation

  • Rigas, Konstantinos & Sambracos, Evangelos & Gatzoli, Androniki, 2011. "Air and Sea Transport: Competition Strategies Under Normal and Economic Crisis Environments," MPRA Paper 52445, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:52445

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. McHardy, Jolian & Trotter, Stephen, 2006. "Competition and deregulation: Do air passengers get the benefits?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 74-93, January.
    2. Waterson, Michael, 2003. "Consumers and Competition," Economic Research Papers 269563, University of Warwick - Department of Economics.
    3. Graham, Brian, 1997. "Regional airline services in the liberalized European Union single aviation market," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 227-238.
    4. Waterson, Michael, 2003. "The role of consumers in competition and competition policy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 129-150, February.
    5. O’Connell, John F. & Williams, George, 2005. "Passengers’ perceptions of low cost airlines and full service carriers: A case study involving Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Malaysia Airlines," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 259-272.
    6. Papatheodorou, Andreas, 2002. "Civil aviation regimes and leisure tourism in Europe," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(6), pages 381-388.
    7. Rigas, Konstantinos, 2009. "Boat or airplane? Passengers’ perceptions of transport services to islands. The example of the Greek domestic leisure market," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 396-401.
    8. Sambracos, Evangelos & Rigas, Konstantinos, 2007. "Passenger reactions to market deregulation: First results from the experience of the Greek islands market," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 61-66.
    9. Kuksov, Dmitri, 2006. "Search, common knowledge, and competition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 130(1), pages 95-108, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Evangelos Sambracos & Marina Maniat, 2014. "Financial Crisis & Passenger Shipping: Evidence from Greece," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 64(2), pages 40-49, April-Jun.
    2. Konstantinos Rigas, 2012. "Connecting Island Regions – A Qualitative Approach to the European Experience," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 62(3-4), pages 30-53, July - De.

    More about this item


    Air and Sea Transport; Passenger Transport; Insular Regions; Competition; Economic Crisis.;

    JEL classification:

    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise


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