Educação para todos –“free to those who can afford it”: human capital and inequality persistence in 21st c Brazil
As one of the world’s most unequal societies, Brazil is often referred to as a land of contrasts: the causes of its high levels of income inequality continuously debated. When solutions are discussed, one of the more frequently recited policy prescriptions is to expand the supply of education within the economy. Through utilisation of socio-economic profiles of students who subscribed to and were enrolled in Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), one of the more progressive public higher education establishments, the data indicates that, between1987- 2010, the Brazilian education system could in fact have exacerbated inequality, despite society having undertaken national educational expansion. The data illustrates how, during the period analysed, less than 35% of UNICAMP students attended only public education; and that moreover, while 61% had attended entrance examination preparation courses, nearly three quarters of participants at these examinations failed to be enrolled at the first time of asking. It is also estimated that more than 60% of UNICAMP students are from households from the 9th and 10th income decile. With the socio-economic profiles of public higher education tending to favour high income households, the curative effects of educational expansion on income inequality appear to be paradoxical. Therefore, a more qualitative approach to public education expansion may be required if a more egalitarian society is to be engendered by tuition-free public higher institutions.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lykke Andersen, 2001. "Social Mobility in Latin America: Links with Adolescent Schooling," Research Department Publications 3130, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Sattinger, Michael, 1993. "Assignment Models of the Distribution of Earnings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 831-880, June.
- Ferreira, Francisco H.G. & Leite, Phillippe G. & Ravallion, Martin, 2010.
"Poverty reduction without economic growth?: Explaining Brazil's poverty dynamics, 1985-2004,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 20-36, September.
- Ferreira, Francisco H. G. & Leite, Phillippe G. & Ravallion, Martin, 2007. "Poverty reduction without economic growth ? explaining Brazil's poverty dynamics, 1985-2004," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4431, The World Bank.
- Regina Grafe & Alejandra Irigoin, 2012.
"A stakeholder empire: the political economy of Spanish imperial rule in America,"
Economic History Review,
Economic History Society, vol. 65(2), pages 609-651, 05.
- Regina Grafe & Maria Alejandra Irigoin, 2008. "A stakeholder empire: the political economy of Spanish imperial rule in America," Economic History Working Papers 22306, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
- David De Ferranti & Guillermo E. Perry & Francisco H.G. Ferreira & Michael Walton, 2004. "Inequality in Latin America : Breaking with History?," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15009.
- Daron Acemoglu, 1999.
"Patterns of Skill Premia,"
NBER Working Papers
7018, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alan Krueger & Orley Ashenfelter, 1992.
"Estimates of the Economic Return to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins,"
NBER Working Papers
4143, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ashenfelter, Orley & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Estimates of the Economic Returns to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1157-1173, December.
- Psacharopoulos, George & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2002.
"Returns to investment in education : a further update,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2881, The World Bank.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
- Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Ridao-Cano, Cris & Sakellariou, Chris, 2006. "Estimating the returns to education : accounting for heterogeneity in ability," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4040, The World Bank.
- Jacob Mincer, 1958. "Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 281-281.
- Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2001.
"The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1369-1401, December.
- Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2000. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 7771, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rodrik, Dani & Alesina, Alberto, 1994.
"Distributive Politics and Economic Growth,"
4551798, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Mohan, Rakesh & Sabot, Richard, 1988. "Educational Expansion and the Inequality of Pay: Colombia 1973-78," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 50(2), pages 175-182, May.
- Paul M Romer, 1999.
"Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
2232, David K. Levine.
- Daron Acemoglu, 2002.
"Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor Market,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 40(1), pages 7-72, March.
- Daron Acemoglu, 2000. "Technical Change, Inequality, and the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 7800, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Michael Spence, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-374.
- Goñi, Edwin & Humberto López, J. & Servén, Luis, 2011.
"Fiscal Redistribution and Income Inequality in Latin America,"
Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1558-1569, September.
- Goni, Edwin & Lopez, J. Humberto & Serven, Luis, 2008. "Fiscal redistribution and income inequality in Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4487, The World Bank.
- Gary S. Becker, 1975. "Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, Second Edition," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number beck75-1.
- Knight, J B & Sabot, R H, 1983. "Educational Expansion and the Kuznets Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1132-1136, December.
- Guillermo E. Perry & Omar S. Arias & J. Humberto López & William F. Maloney & Luis Servén, 2006. "Poverty Reduction and Growth : Virtuous and Vicious Circles," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6997.
- Lam. D. & Schoeni, R.F., 1996.
"Effects on Family Background on Earnings and Returns to Schooling: Evidence from Brazil,"
96-13, RAND - Reprint Series.
- Lam, David & Schoeni, Robert F, 1993. "Effects of Family Background on Earnings and Returns to Schooling: Evidence from Brazil," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(4), pages 710-740, August.
- Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lederman, Daniel & Loayza, Norman, 2002. "Inequality and Violent Crime," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(1), pages 1-40, April.
- de Carvalho Filho, Irineu & Colistete, Renato P., 2010. "Education Performance: Was It All Determined 100 Years Ago? Evidence From São Paulo, Brazil," MPRA Paper 24494, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- World Bank, 2002. "Higher Education in Brazil : Challenges and Options," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14076.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:49531. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.