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Inter-Dependencies in Budget Deficit and its Financing Sources in Pakistan (1960-2005)

Author

Listed:
  • Khan, Abdul Qayyum Khan
  • Khattak, Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak
  • Khattak, M Saghir
  • Hussain, Anwar Hussain

Abstract

The paper critically appraises causality, susceptibility to innovation of budget deficit, domestic borrowing from banking system and foreign borrowing. Secondary data is used, which was taken from annual Economic Survey of Pakistan (various issues), and International Financial Statistics (2005). For analysis, Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model with Impulse Response Function (IRF), Error Variance Decomposition and Granger Causality test is used. The study revealed that any innovation of one standard deviation took seven years for budget deficit and more than ten years for domestic bank borrowing and foreign borrowing to be effective. The variation in budget deficit is mostly explained by itself. Most of the variation in domestic bank borrowing is explained by budget deficit, while variation in foreign borrowing is mostly explained by budget deficit and domestic bank borrowing. Two unilateral causality are found and no bilateral causality, and in mostly independent relationships have been detected. Based on the finding the study suggests parallel and harmonized fiscal and monetary policy to reduce foreign reserves outflow. Fiscal policy is more vulnerable to shocks or innovations and monetary policy took longer time to become effective, so the gap between monetary policy formation and its implementation must be reduced.

Suggested Citation

  • Khan, Abdul Qayyum Khan & Khattak, Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak & Khattak, M Saghir & Hussain, Anwar Hussain, 2008. "Inter-Dependencies in Budget Deficit and its Financing Sources in Pakistan (1960-2005)," MPRA Paper 42031, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:42031
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/42031/1/MPRA_paper_42031.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Barro, Robert J, 1974. "Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1095-1117, Nov.-Dec..
    2. Fazal Husain & Tariq Mahmood, 2001. "The Stock Market and the Economy in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(2), pages 107-114.
    3. Ahking, Francis W. & Miller, Stephen M., 1985. "The relationship between government deficits, money growthm and inflation," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 447-467.
    4. Barro, Robert J., 1978. "Comment from an unreconstructed Ricardian," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 569-581, August.
    5. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    6. Nadeem A. Burney & Naeem Akhtar, 1992. "Government Budget Deficits and Exchange Rate Determination: Evidence from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 871-882.
    7. Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-552, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Budget Deficit; Causality; Domestic Bank Borrowing; Foreign Borrowing; Inter-Dependencies;

    JEL classification:

    • B22 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Macroeconomics
    • A10 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - General

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