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Migration and Tourist Flows


  • Nuno, Carlos Leitão
  • Muhammad, Shahbaz


This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

Suggested Citation

  • Nuno, Carlos Leitão & Muhammad, Shahbaz, 2011. "Migration and Tourist Flows," MPRA Paper 34905, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 12 Nov 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:34905

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    2. Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 2000. "GMM Estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-340.
    3. Edgar J Sanchez Carrera & W. Adrian Risso & Juan Gabriel Brida, 2008. "Tourism's Impact on Long-Run Mexican Economic Growth," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(21), pages 1-8.
    4. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    5. Andrea Mervar & James E. Payne, 2007. "An Analysis of Foreign Tourism Demand for Croatian Destinations: Long-Run Elasticity Estimates," Working Papers 0701, The Institute of Economics, Zagreb.
    6. Witt, Stephen F. & Witt, Christine A., 1995. "Forecasting tourism demand: A review of empirical research," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 447-475, September.
    7. Michael Vogt, 2008. "Determinants of the demand for US exports and imports of tourism," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(6), pages 667-672.
    8. Nuno Carlos LEITÃO, 2010. "Does Trade Help to Explain Tourism Demand? The Case of Portugal," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 3(3(544)), pages 63-74, March.
    9. Fischer, Andreas M., 2007. "Measuring income elasticity for Swiss money demand: What do the cantons say about financial innovation?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(7), pages 1641-1660, October.
    10. William Maloney & Gabriel V. Montes Rojas, 2005. "How elastic are sea, sand and sun? Dynamic panel estimates of the demand for tourism," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(5), pages 277-280.
    11. Yair Eilat & Liran Einav, 2004. "Determinants of international tourism: a three-dimensional panel data analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(12), pages 1315-1327.
    12. N. Kulendran & Kenneth Wilson, 2000. "Is there a relationship between international trade and international travel?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(8), pages 1001-1009.
    13. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Voshage Ina, 2015. "Nutzen von Gütesiegeln für touristische Anbieter von Wellnessleistungen," Zeitschrift für Tourismuswissenschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 7(2), pages 223-230, November.
    2. Tahseen, Samiha & Karney, Bryan, 2017. "Opportunities for increased hydropower diversion at Niagara: An sSWOT analysis," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 757-770.
    3. Morando, Greta, 2014. "Partner ethnicity and ethnic minority socio- economic occupation: evidence from the UK," ISER Working Paper Series 2014-29, Institute for Social and Economic Research.

    More about this item


    Tourism demand; panel data; immigration and Portugal;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration

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