The political economy of electricity market liberalization: a cross-country approach
More than half of the countries in the world have introduced a reform process in their power sectors and billions of dollars have been spent on liberalizing electricity markets around the world. Ideological considerations, political composition of governments and educational/professional background of leaders have played and will play a crucial role throughout the reform process. Adapting a political economy perspective, this paper attempts to discover the impact of political economy variables on the liberalization process in electricity markets. Empirical models are developed and analyzed using panel data from 55 developed and developing countries covering the period 1975–2010. The research findings suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between electricity market liberalization and the size of industry sector, meaning that countries with larger industry sectors tend to liberalize less. Also, we detect a negative correlation between polity score and power sector liberalization, that is; it cannot be argued that liberalization policies are stronger in more democratic countries. On the other hand, our results imply that countries that receive foreign financial aid or assistance are more likely to liberalize their electricity markets. In OECD countries, single-party governments accelerate the reform process by reducing public ownership and vertical integration. Moreover, we detect a negative relationship between the years the chief executive has been in office and the reform progress in OECD countries. Furthermore, we identify a decrease in vertical integration in electricity industry during the terms of parties with “right” or “left” ideologies in OECD countries. Additionally, professional and educational background of head of executive branch (prime minister, president and so on) seem to have very significant impact on reform process in OECD countries, but this is not the case in non-OECD countries. Leaders with a professional background as entrepreneurs speed up electricity market liberalization process in OECD countries while those with a background as economists slow it down. As for educational background, the reforms seem to progress slower in OECD countries if the head of executive has an educational background in economics or natural science. As a final point, the study suggests that EU or OECD membership, the existence of electricity market reform idea, population density, electricity consumption, income level, educational level, imports of goods and services (as % of GDP) and country specific features have a strong correlation with liberalization process in electricity markets.
|Date of creation:||10 Oct 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Pavcnik, Nina, 2005.
"Trade, wages, and the political economy of trade protection: evidence from the Colombian trade reforms,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 75-105, May.
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Pavcnik, Nina, 2003. "Trade, Wages and the Political Economy of Trade Protection: Evidence from the Colombian Trade Reforms," CEPR Discussion Papers 3877, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- John Cubbin & Jon Stern, 2006. "The Impact of Regulatory Governance and Privatization on Electricity Industry Generation Capacity in Developing Economies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 20(1), pages 115-141.
- Jamasb, T. & Newbery, D. & Pollitt, M., 2004. "'Core Indicators for Determinants and Performance of Electricity Sector in Developing Countries’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0438, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Kim, Byung-Yeon & Pirttila, Jukka, 2006. "Political constraints and economic reform: Empirical evidence from the post-communist transition in the 1990s," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 446-466, September.
- Yi-chong, Xu, 2006. "The myth of the single solution: electricity reforms and the World Bank," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 802-814.
- Williams, J.H. & Ghanadan, R., 2006. "Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 815-844.
- Jamasb, Tooraj & Newbery, David & Pollitt, Michael, 2005. "Core indicators for determinants and performance of the electricity sector in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3599, The World Bank.
- Duval, Romain, 2008. "Is there a role for macroeconomic policy in fostering structural reforms? Panel evidence from OECD countries over the past two decades," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 491-502, June.
- Axel Dreher & Michael J. Lamla & Sarah M. Rupprecht & Frank Somogyi, 2006.
"The impact of political leaders’ profession and education on reforms,"
KOF Working papers
06-147, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
- Dreher, Axel & Lamla, Michael J. & Lein, Sarah M. & Somogyi, Frank, 2009. "The impact of political leaders' profession and education on reforms," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 169-193, March.
- Alberto Alesina & Silvia Ardagna & Francesco Trebbi, 2006. "Who Adjusts and When?The Political Economy of Reforms," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 53(si), pages 1.
- Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong Wha, 2013.
"A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 184-198.
- Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 2010. "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010," NBER Working Papers 15902, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fredriksson, Per G. & Wollscheid, Jim R., 2008. "The political economy of investment: The case of pollution control technology," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 53-72, March.
- Li, Wei & Xu, Lixin Colin, 2002.
"The Political Economy of Privatization and Competition: Cross-Country Evidence from the Telecommunications Sector,"
Journal of Comparative Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 439-462, September.
- Colin Xu, Lixin & Li, Wei & Zhen-Wei Qiang, Christine, 2001. "The Political Economy of Privatization and Competition: Cross-Country Evidence from the Telecommunications Sector," CEPR Discussion Papers 2825, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Gasmi, Farid & Recuero Virto, Laura, 2009.
"The Determinants and Impact of Telecommunications Reforms in Developing Countries,"
TSE Working Papers
09-092, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
- Gasmi, Farid & Recuero Virto, Laura, 2010. "The determinants and impact of telecommunications reforms in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 275-286, November.
- Gasmi, Farid & Recuero Virto, Laura, 2008. "The Determinants and Impact of Telecommunications Reform in Developping Countries," IDEI Working Papers 530, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Paul Conway & Giuseppe Nicoletti, 2006. "Product Market Regulation in the Non-Manufacturing Sectors of OECD Countries: Measurement and Highlights," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 530, OECD Publishing.
- Ickes, Barry W. & Ofer, Gur, 2006. "The political economy of structural change in Russia," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 409-434, June.
- Olper, Alessandro, 2007. "Land inequality, government ideology and agricultural protection," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 67-83, February.
- Yongfu Huang, 2009. "The political economy of financial reform: are Abiad and Mody right?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(7), pages 1207-1213.
- Duso, Tomaso & Seldeslachts, Jo, 2010. "The political economy of mobile telecommunications liberalization: Evidence from the OECD countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 199-216, June.
- Boschini, Anne D., 2006. "The political economy of industrialisation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 887-907, December.
- Hogan, William W, 2002. "Electricity Market Restructuring: Reforms of Reforms," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 103-32, January.
- Alberto Alesina & Silvia Ardagna & Francesco Trebbi, 2006.
"Who adjusts and when? On the political economy of reforms,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
2108, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Alberto Alesina & Silvia Ardagna & Francesco Trebbi, 2006. "Who Adjusts and When? On the Political Economy of Reforms," NBER Working Papers 12049, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gratwick, Katharine Nawaal & Eberhard, Anton, 2008. "Demise of the standard model for power sector reform and the emergence of hybrid power markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 3948-3960, October.
- Chang, Chun Ping & Berdiev, Aziz N., 2011. "The political economy of energy regulation in OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 816-825, September.
- Wagner, Alexander F. & Schneider, Friedrich & Halla, Martin, 2009. "The quality of institutions and satisfaction with democracy in Western Europe -- A panel analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 30-41, March.
- Farid Gasmi & Paul Noumba Um & Laura Recuero Virto, 2009.
"Political Accountability and Regulatory Performance in Infrastructure Industries: An Empirical Analysis,"
World Bank Economic Review,
World Bank Group, vol. 23(3), pages 509-531, October.
- Gasmi, Farid & Noumba Um, Paul & Virto, Laura Recuero, 2006. "Political accountability and regulatory performance in infrastructure industries : an empirical analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4101, The World Bank.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:33724. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.