IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Is Malaysia exempted from impossible trinity: empirical evidence from 1991-2009

  • Lim, Ewe Ghee
  • Goh, SooKhoon

This paper examines Bank Negara Malaysia’s (BNM) monetary policy autonomy in 1991-2009, a period of volatile capital flows, during which BNM operated under several exchange regimes: managed floating; fixed exchange rates; and fixed exchange rates with selective capital controls. Using a modified version of the Brissimis, Gibson and Tsakalotos (2002) model, the paper’s empirical estimates show that the same-period offset coefficients are significantly less than unity under all regimes, indicating that the Malaysian central bank possesses some short-run control over monetary policy (even under fixed exchange rates). Although the long-run offset coefficient continues to be less than unity under managed floating, it is not significantly less than unity under fixed exchange rates. These results show that Malaysia is not exempted from the impossible trinity except in the very short-run. Perhaps one of the reasons Malaysia abandoned its US dollar exchange rate peg on 20 July 2005 to move back to managed floating is to increase its monetary policy independence. One implication of the Malaysian monetary policy experience is that managed floating with active sterilization may be a viable strategy for emerging market economies to deal with volatile capital flows.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 30804.

in new window

Date of creation: Mar 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30804
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany

Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2459
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-992459
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Aizenman, Joshua & Chinn, Menzie David & Ito, Hiro, 2009. "Assessing the Emerging Global Financial Architecture: Measuring the Trilemma's Configurations over Time," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt840728sc, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  2. Richard Clarida & Jordi Gali & Mark Gertler, 1998. "Monetary Policy Rules and Macroeconomic Stability: Evidence and Some Theory," NBER Working Papers 6442, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Brissimis, S.N. & Gibson, H.D. & Tsakalotos, E., 1997. "A Unifying Framework for Analysing Offsetting Capital Flows and Sterilisation," Athens University of Economics and Business 97-06, Athens University of Economics and Business, Department of International and European Economic Studies.
  4. Neumann, Manfred J. M., 1978. "Offsetting capital flows : A reexamination of the German case," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 131-142, January.
  5. Olcay Yucel Emir & Almila Karasoy & Kursat Kunter, 2000. "Monetary Policy Reaction Function In Turkey," Discussion Papers 0005, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  6. Clarida, Richard & Gali, Jordi & Gertler, Mark, 1997. "Monetary Policy Rules in Practice: Some International Evidence," Working Papers 97-32, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  7. Kim, Soyoung & Yang, Doo Yong, 2009. "International Monetary Transmission and Exchange Rate Regimes: Floaters vs. Non-Floaters," ADBI Working Papers 181, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  8. Girton, Lance & Roper, Don, 1977. "A Monetary Model of Exchange Market Pressure Applied to the Postwar Canadian Experience," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(4), pages 537-48, September.
  9. Alice Ouyang & Ramkishen Rajan & Tom Willett, 2008. "Managing the Monetary Consequences of Reserve Accumulation in Emerging Asia," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 171-199.
  10. Kouri, Pentti J K & Porter, Michael G, 1974. "International Capital Flows and Portfolio Equilibrium," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(3), pages 443-67, May/June.
  11. Ramon Moreno & Mark M. Spiegel, 1997. "Are Asian economies exempt from the "impossible trinity?": evidence from Singapore," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 97-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  12. Savvides, Andreas, 1998. "Inflation and monetary policy in selected West and Central African countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 809-827, May.
  13. Waheed, Muhammad, 2007. "Central bank intervention, sterilization and monetary independence: the case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2328, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Mar 2007.
  14. Timothy Bond, 1998. "Capital Flows to Asia: The Role of Monetary Policy," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 25(2), pages 165-182, January.
  15. Herring, Richard J. & Marston, Richard C., 1977. "Sterilization policy: The trade-off between monetary autonomy and control over foreign exchange reserves," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 325-343.
  16. Ouyang, Alice Y. & Rajan, Ramkishen S. & Willett, Thomas D., 2010. "China as a reserve sink: The evidence from offset and sterilization coefficients," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 951-972, September.
  17. Gyuhan Kim, 1995. "Exchange rate constraints and money control in Korea," Working Papers 1995-011, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30804. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.