Competitive, but too small - productivity and entry-exit determinants in European business services
The paper investigates whether scale effects, market structure, and regulation determine the poor productivity performance of the European business services industry. We apply parametric and nonparametric methods to estimate the productivity frontier and subsequently explain the distance of firms to the productivity frontier by market characteristics, entry- and exit dynamics and national regulation. The frontier is assessed using detailed industry data panel for 13 EU countries. Our estimates suggest that most scale advantages are exhausted after reaching a size of 20 employees. This scale inefficiency is persistent over time and points to weak competitive selection. Market and regulation characteristics explain the persistence of X-inefficiency (sub-optimal productivity relative to the industry frontier). More entry and exit are favourable for productivity performance, while higher market concentration works out negatively. Regulatory differences also appear to explain part of the business services' productivity performance. In particular regulation-caused exit and labour reallocation costs have significant and large negative impacts on the process of competitive selection and hence on productivity performance. Overall we find that the most efficient scale in business services is close to 20 employees and that scale inefficiencies show a hump-shape pattern with strong potential scale economies for the smallest firms and diseconomies of scale for the largest firms. The smallest firms operate under competitive conditions, but they are too small to be efficient. And since this conclusion holds for about 95 out of every 100 European business services firms, this factor weighs heavily for the overall productivity performance of this industry.
|Date of creation:||01 Jul 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Moses Abramovitz, 1956. "Resource and Output Trends in the United States Since 1870," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number abra56-1.
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977.
"Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Bloch, Harry & Madden, Gary G & Savage, Scott J, 2001.
"Economies of scale and scope in Australian telecommunications,"
11154, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Harry Bloch & Gary Madden & Scott Savage, 2001. "Economies of Scale and Scope in Australian Telecommunications," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 219-227, March.
- Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2001.
"The Regulation of Entry,"
Working Paper Series
rwp01-015, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Shleifer, Andrei & Lopez de Silanes, Florencio, 2001. "The regulation of entry," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2661, The World Bank.
- Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andre Shleifer, 2000. "The Regulation of Entry," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1904, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Simeon Djankov & Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, . "The Regulation of Entry," Working Paper 19462, Harvard University OpenScholar.
- Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio LopezdeSilanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2000. "The Regulation of Entry," NBER Working Papers 7892, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & López-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2001. "The Regulation of Entry," CEPR Discussion Papers 2953, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Oulton, Nicholas, 2001.
"Must the Growth Rate Decline? Baumol's Unbalanced Growth Revisited,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 53(4), pages 605-27, October.
- Nicholas Oulton, 2000. "Must the growth rate decline? Baumol's unbalanced growth revisited," Bank of England working papers 107, Bank of England.
- Guglielmo Barone & Federico Cingano, 2008.
"Service regulation and growth: evidence from OECD countries,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
675, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Guglielmo Barone & Federico Cingano, 2011. "Service Regulation and Growth: Evidence from OECD Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(555), pages 931-957, 09.
- Christopher J. Gust & Jaime R. Marquez, 2002.
"International comparisons of productivity growth: the role of information technology and regulatory practices,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
727, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Gust, Christopher & Marquez, Jaime, 2004. "International comparisons of productivity growth: the role of information technology and regulatory practices," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 33-58, February.
- ZELLNER, Arnold & KMENTA, Jan & DREZE, Jacques H., . "Specification and estimation of Cobb-Douglas production function models," CORE Discussion Papers RP 12, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Luis Rubalcaba, 2007. "Services in European Policies," Bruges European Economic Policy Briefings 16, European Economic Studies Department, College of Europe.
- Lucia Foster & John C. Haltiwanger & C. J. Krizan, 2001.
"Aggregate Productivity Growth. Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence,"
in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 303-372
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lucia Foster & John Haltiwanger & C.J. Krizan, 1998. "Aggregate Productivity Growth: Lessons from Microeconomic Evidence," NBER Working Papers 6803, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John Haltiwanger & C J Krizan & Lucia Foster, 1998. "Aggregate Productivity Growth: Lessons From Microeconomic Evidence," Working Papers 98-12, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Caves, Richard E & Khalilzadeh-Shirazi, J & Porter, M E, 1975. "Scale Economies in Statistical Analyses of Market Power," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 57(2), pages 133-40, May.
- Phillip Arestis & Michelle Baddeley & John S.L. McCombie (ed.), 2007. "Economic Growth," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3958, 8.
- Henk Kox & Arjan Lejour, 2006. "The Effects of the Services Directive on Intra-eu Trade and fdi," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 57(4), pages 747-769.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1996.
"Financial Dependence and Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
5758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-32.
- Gronroos, Christian & Ojasalo, Katri, 2004. "Service productivity: Towards a conceptualization of the transformation of inputs into economic results in services," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(4), pages 414-423, April.
- Brown, Clair & Haltiwanger, John & Lane, Julia, 2006. "Economic Turbulence," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 0, number 9780226076324, February.
- Olley, G Steven & Pakes, Ariel, 1996.
"The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry,"
Econometric Society, vol. 64(6), pages 1263-97, November.
- G. Steven Olley & Ariel Pakes, 1992. "The Dynamics of Productivity in the Telecommunications Equipment Industry," NBER Working Papers 3977, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- George S Olley & Ariel Pakes, 1992. "The Dynamics Of Productivity In The Telecommunications Equipment Industry," Working Papers 92-2, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
- repec:cor:louvrp:-12 is not listed on IDEAS
- Henk L.M. Kox, 2004. "The contribution of business services to aggregate productivity growth," Industrial Organization 0402005, EconWPA.
- Eric J. Bartelsman & Mark Doms, 2000.
"Understanding productivity: lessons from longitudinal microdata,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
2000-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Mark Doms & Eric J. Bartelsman, 2000. "Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 569-594, September.
- Henk Kox & Luis Rubalcaba, 2007.
"Business services and the changing structure of European economic growth,"
183, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
- Kox, Henk L.M. & Rubalcaba, Luis, 2007. "Business services and the changing structure of European economic growth," MPRA Paper 3750, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Uwe Cantner, 2007. "Firms' Differential Innovative Success and Market Dynamics," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-078, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
- Klapper, Leora & Laeven, Luc & Rajan, Raghuram, 2006. "Entry regulation as a barrier to entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 591-629, December.
- Antonelli, Cristiano, 2001. "The Microeconomics of Technological Systems," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199245536, June.
- Henk Kox & Arjan Lejour & Raymond Montizaan, 2004. "The free movement of services within the EU," CPB Document 69, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
- Alvin J. Silk & Ernst R. Berndt, 2003. "Scale and Scope Economies in the Global Advertising and Marketing Services Business," NBER Working Papers 9965, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Moses Abramovitz, 1956. "Resource and Output Trends in the United States Since 1870," NBER Chapters, in: Resource and Output Trends in the United States Since 1870, pages 1-23 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- van der Wiel, Henry & van Leeuwen, George & Hempell, Thomas, 2004. "ICT, Innovation and Business Performance in Services: Evidence for Germany and the Netherlands," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-06, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Pels, Eric & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 2003. "Inefficiencies and scale economies of European airport operations," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 341-361, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:24389. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.