IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/phu/wpaper/005.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Funding Self-Employment – The Role of Consumer Credit

Author

Abstract

In this paper we investigate whether consumer loans are used to finance business activities. We show that self-employed households particularly use personal overdrafts significantly more often than employee households. The difference remains when controlling for financial and non-financial household variables. Our findings are corroborated when analyzing the correlation between consumer loan take-ups and consumption of self-employed households. Intermingling of personal and business resources is more likely when the household is credit constrained; when the household head is younger; when the household head’s partner is employed; and when financial assets within the household are lower.

Suggested Citation

  • Christoph Kneiding & Alexander S. Kritikos, 2008. "Funding Self-Employment – The Role of Consumer Credit," Working Papers 005, Hanseatic University, Germany, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:phu:wpaper:005
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: ftp://212.204.40.50/econ/RePEc/pdf/phu_dp_005.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    2. Marianne P. Bitler & Alicia M. Robb & John D. Wolken, 2001. "Financial services used by small businesses: evidence from the 1998 survey of small business finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), vol. 87(Apr), pages 183-205, April.
    3. Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, 2010. "Start-ups by the unemployed: characteristics, survival and direct employment effects," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-92, July.
    4. Martin Browning & Thomas F. Crossley, 2001. "The Life-Cycle Model of Consumption and Saving," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(3), pages 3-22, Summer.
    5. Naomi E. Feldman & Joel Slemrod, 2007. "Estimating tax noncompliance with evidence from unaudited tax returns," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(518), pages 327-352, March.
    6. J. William Petty & William D. Bygrave, 1993. "What Does Finance Have to Say to the Entrepreneur?," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 2(2), pages 125-137, Spring.
    7. Hancock, Diana & Wilcox, James A., 1998. "The "credit crunch" and the availability of credit to small business," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 983-1014, August.
    8. Marshall, CBE, FBA, P.J., 2003. "Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 121, 2002 Lectures," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780197263037, Decembrie.
    9. Marshall, CBE, FBA, P.J., 2003. "Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 120, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows, II," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780197263020, Decembrie.
    10. George W. Haynes & Rosemary J. Avery, 1996. "Family Businesses: Can the Family and the Business Finances Be Separated? Preliminary Results," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 5(1), pages 61-74, Spring.
    11. Runkle, David E., 1991. "Liquidity constraints and the permanent-income hypothesis : Evidence from panel data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 73-98, February.
    12. J. Manrique & K. Ojah, 2004. "Credits and non-interest rate determinants of loan demand: a Spanish case study," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(8), pages 781-791.
    13. C. Praag & Peter Versloot, 2007. "What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 351-382, December.
    14. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos, 2009. "Risk attitudes of nascent entrepreneurs–new evidence from an experimentally validated survey," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 153-167, February.
    15. Kritikos Alexander & Kneiding Christoph & Germelmann Claas Christian, 2009. "Demand Side Analysis of Microlending Markets in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 229(5), pages 523-543, October.
    16. Yilmazer, Tansel & Schrank, Holly, 2006. "Financial intermingling in small family businesses," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 726-751, September.
    17. Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "What's the point of credit scoring?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Sep, pages 3-16.
    18. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
    19. Winborg, Joakim & Landstrom, Hans, 2001. "Financial bootstrapping in small businesses: Examining small business managers' resource acquisition behaviors," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 235-254, May.
    20. Harhoff, Dietmar & Korting, Timm, 1998. "Lending relationships in Germany - Empirical evidence from survey data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(10-11), pages 1317-1353, October.
    21. Bruce Bradbury, 1996. "Are the Low Income Self-employed Poor?," Discussion Papers 0073, University of New South Wales, Social Policy Research Centre.
    22. Harhoff, Dietmar & Körting, Timm, 1998. "Lending Relationships in Germany: Empirical Results from Survey Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 1917, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Jonathan Crook, 2001. "The demand for household debt in the USA: evidence from the 1995 Survey of Consumer Finance," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 83-91.
    24. Olson, Patricia D. & Zuiker, Virginia S. & Danes, Sharon M. & Stafford, Kathryn & Heck, Ramona K. Z. & Duncan, Karen A., 2003. "The impact of the family and the business on family business sustainability," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 639-666, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Alina Sorgner & Michael Fritsch & Alexander Kritikos, 2017. "Do entrepreneurs really earn less?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 251-272, August.
    2. Tia Michelle McDonald & Maria I. Marshall, 2018. "Family Business Responses to Household and Business Cash-Flow Problems," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 163-176, March.
    3. Kritikos Alexander & Kneiding Christoph & Germelmann Claas Christian, 2009. "Demand Side Analysis of Microlending Markets in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 229(5), pages 523-543, October.
    4. Åstebro, Thomas & Chen, Jing, 2014. "The entrepreneurial earnings puzzle: Mismeasurement or real?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 88-105.
    5. Xu, Nana & Yuan, Yan & Rong, Zhao, 2022. "Depressed access to formal finance and the use of credit card debt in Chinese SMEs," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    6. Renee D. Wiatt & Yoon G. Lee & Maria I. Marshall & Virginia S. Zuiker, 2021. "The Effect of Cash Flow Problems and Resource Intermingling on Small Business Recovery and Resilience After a Natural Disaster," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 203-214, March.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Kritikos Alexander & Kneiding Christoph & Germelmann Claas Christian, 2009. "Demand Side Analysis of Microlending Markets in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 229(5), pages 523-543, October.
    2. Mueller, Elisabeth, 2008. "How does owners' exposure to idiosyncratic risk influence the capital structure of private companies?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 185-198, March.
    3. Alexander S. Kritikos & Christoph Kneiding & Claas Christian Germelmann, 2006. "Is there a Market for Micro-Lending in Industrialized Countries? - Evidence from Germany," Working Papers 0003, Gesellschaft für Arbeitsmarktaktivierung (GfA).
    4. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
    5. Fritsch, Michael & Kritikos, Alexander S. & Rusakova, Alina, 2012. "Who Starts a Business and Who is Self-Employed in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 6326, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Yilmazer, Tansel & Schrank, Holly, 2006. "Financial intermingling in small family businesses," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 726-751, September.
    7. Hernán Ortiz-Molina & María Penas, 2008. "Lending to small businesses: the role of loan maturity in addressing information problems," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 361-383, April.
    8. DeYoung, Robert & Glennon, Dennis & Nigro, Peter, 2008. "Borrower-lender distance, credit scoring, and loan performance: Evidence from informational-opaque small business borrowers," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 113-143, January.
    9. Ginés Hernández-Cánovas & Pedro Martínez-Solano, 2007. "Effect of the Number of Banking Relationships on Credit Availability: Evidence from Panel Data of Spanish Small Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 37-53, January.
    10. Bodenhorn, Howard, 2003. "Short-Term Loans and Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Lending in Early America," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(4), pages 485-505, August.
    11. Estefanía Palazuelos & Ángel Herrero Crespo & Javier Montoya Corte, 2018. "Accounting information quality and trust as determinants of credit granting to SMEs: the role of external audit," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(4), pages 861-877, December.
    12. Wei Yin & Kent Matthews, 2018. "Why Do Firms Switch Banks? Evidence from China," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(9), pages 2040-2052, July.
    13. Udell, Gregory F., 2008. "What's in a relationship The case of commercial lending," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 93-103.
    14. Arito Ono & Iichiro Uesugi, 2009. "Role of Collateral and Personal Guarantees in Relationship Lending: Evidence from Japan's SME Loan Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(5), pages 935-960, August.
    15. Fossen, Frank M. & Büttner, Tobias J.M., 2013. "The returns to education for opportunity entrepreneurs, necessity entrepreneurs, and paid employees," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 66-84.
    16. Chala, Alemu Tulu & Forssbaeck, Jens, 2018. "Does Collateral Reduce Loan-Size Credit Rationing? Survey Evidence," Working Papers 2018:36, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    17. Frank M. Fossen & Ray Rees & Davud Rostam-Afschar & Viktor Steiner, 2020. "The effects of income taxation on entrepreneurial investment: A puzzle?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 27(6), pages 1321-1363, December.
    18. David B. Audretsch & Erik E. Lehmann, 2013. "Corporate governance in newly listed companies," Chapters, in: Mario Levis & Silvio Vismara (ed.), Handbook of Research on IPOs, chapter 9, pages 179-206, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    19. Mirjam van Praag & Arjen van Witteloostuijn & Justin van der Sluis, 2009. "Returns for Entrepreneurs versus Employees: The Effect of Education and Personal Control on the Relative Performance of Entrepreneurs vis-a-vis Wage Employees," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-111/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    20. Annalisa Castelli & Gerald P. Dwyer & Iftekhar Hasan, 2006. "Bank relationships and small firms’ financial performance," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2006-05, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:phu:wpaper:005. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Frank Waldau (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.hanseuni.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.