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Short-Term Loans and Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Lending in Early America

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  • Bodenhorn, Howard

Abstract

Recent banking theory holds that durable firm-bank relationships are valuable to both parties. This paper uses the contract-specific loan records of a 19th-century U.S. bank and shows that firms with extended relationships received three principal benefits. First, firms with extended relationships had lower credit costs. Second, long-term customers provided fewer personal guarantees, which were an alternative to collateral. Third, long-term customers were more likely to have loan terms renegotiated during a credit crunch. These findings support theories that banks realize cost advantages through the use of proprietary information.

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  • Bodenhorn, Howard, 2003. " Short-Term Loans and Long-Term Relationships: Relationship Lending in Early America," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(4), pages 485-505, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:35:y:2003:i:4:p:485-505
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    Cited by:

    1. Ardic, Oya Pinar & Mylenko, Nataliya & Saltane, Valentina, 2011. "Small and medium enterprises : a cross-country analysis with a new data set," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5538, The World Bank.
    2. Colombatto, Enrico & Melnik, Arie & Monticone, Chiara, "undated". "Relationships and the availability of credit to New Small Firms," Working Papers WP2011/11, University of Haifa, Department of Economics, revised 23 Oct 2011.
    3. Djedidi-Kooli, Salima, 2009. "L’accès au financement des PME en France : quel rôle joué par la structure du système bancaire ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/8354 edited by Etner, François, August.
    4. Eugene Kang & Asghar Zardkoohi & Ramona Paetzold & Donald Fraser, 2013. "Relationship banking and escalating commitments to bad loans," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 899-910, May.
    5. Lionel Artige & Rosella Nicolini, 2008. "Memory in Contracts: The Experience of the EBRD (1991-2003)," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 724.08, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
    6. Bartz, Wiebke & Winkler, Adalbert, 2016. "Flexible or fragile? The growth performance of small and young businesses during the global financial crisis — Evidence from Germany," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 196-215.
    7. Tumer-Alkan, G., 2008. "Essays on banking," Other publications TiSEM 8d5ec521-4702-4e75-bc79-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
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    9. Brick, Ivan E. & Palia, Darius, 2007. "Evidence of jointness in the terms of relationship lending," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 452-476, July.
    10. Ono, Arito & Hasumi, Ryo & Hirata, Hideaki, 2014. "Differentiated use of small business credit scoring by relationship lenders and transactional lenders: Evidence from firm–bank matched data in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 371-380.
    11. Karapetyan, Artashes & Stacescu, Bogdan, 2014. "Does information sharing reduce the role of collateral as a screening device?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 48-57.
    12. Andreas Dietrich, 2012. "Explaining loan rate differentials between small and large companies: evidence from Switzerland," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 481-494, May.
    13. Howard Bodenhorn, 2005. "Usury Ceilings, Relationships and Bank Lending Behavior: Evidence from Nineteenth Century," NBER Working Papers 11734, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Howard Bodenhorn, 2016. "Two Centuries of Finance and Growth in the United States, 1790-1980," Working Papers id:11352, eSocialSciences.
    15. Chi, Li-Chiu, 2009. "How have banks fared following a borrower's financial distress?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 480-488, March.
    16. Gómez-González, José Eduardo & Reyes, Nidia Ruth, 2011. "The number of banking relationships and the business cycle: New evidence from Colombia," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 408-418, September.
    17. Karlyn Mitchell & Douglas K. Pearce, 2004. "Which Loans are Relationship Loans? Evidence from the 1998 Survey of Small Business Finances," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 9(2), pages 1-36, Summer.
    18. Wang, Ta-Chen, 2008. "Paying back to borrow more: Reputation and bank credit access in early America," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 477-488, September.
    19. Behr, Patrick & Entzian, Annekathrin & Güttler, Andre, 2011. "How do lending relationships affect access to credit and loan conditions in microlending?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 2169-2178, August.
    20. Bonini, Stefano & Dell'Acqua, Alberto & Fungo, Matteo & Kysucky, Vlado, 2016. "Credit market concentration, relationship lending and the cost of debt," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 172-179.
    21. Ginés Hernández Cánovas & Pedro Martínez Solano, 2003. "Relaciones Bancarias Y Sus Efectos Sobre Los Términos De La Deuda En Las Pymes," Working Papers. Serie EC 2003-07, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    22. Tensie Steijvers & Wim Voordeckers & Koen Vanhoof, 2010. "Collateral, relationship lending and family firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 243-259, April.
    23. Tra, Pham Thi Thu & Lensink, Robert, 2006. "The Determinants of Loan Contracts to Business Firms: Empirical Evidence from a Private Bank in Vietnam," WIDER Working Paper Series 086, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    24. Tlili, Rim, 2012. "Comment justifier la multibancarité au sein des PME ?," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/10919 edited by Etner, François, August.

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    JEL classification:

    • N2 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services

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