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En quelle année vaut-il mieux être né? Les revenus des hommes et des femmes au Canada pendant un quart de siècle

  • Gilles Grenier

    ()

    (Department of Economics, University of Ottawa)

Il existe une perception qu’il y a des inégalités économiques entre les générations et plus précisément que la situation économique des jeunes travailleurs d’aujourd’hui est moins bonne que celle de leurs aînés. Dans ce texte, on cherche à tester cette hypothèse pour les hommes et les femmes au Canada. En combinant des micro-données des recensements canadiens de 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991 et 1996, on estime des régressions de gains qui isolent les effets de l’année de naissance et de l’âge. Les valeurs monétaires sont converties avec l’indice des prix à la consommation (IPC). Dans la spécification de base, il n’y a pas d’autres variables explicatives. Pour les hommes, on obtient le résultat que la génération la plus "chanceuse" est celle née en 1944 et que les moins fortunés sont ceux nés récemment. Pour les femmes, la génération ayant les gains les plus élevés est celle née en 1960 et les générations récentes gagnent beaucoup plus que les plus anciennes. L’inclusion de variables explicatives standards ne change pas la forme de la relation entre les gains et l’année de naissance, mais la génération qui a les gains les plus élevés est un peu plus ancienne et les écarts entre générations sont plus petits. Les résultats sont sensibles à l’utilisation de l’IPC pour convertir les revenus. Si on suppose, comme certains le pensent, que l’IPC a systématiquement surestimé les augmentations de prix dans le passé, la situation économique des jeunes générations est meilleure que ce qu’on aurait estimé autrement. Les résultats confirment en partie certaines idées courantes sur le bien-être relatif des générations, mais ils montrent aussi la difficulté de comparer les niveaux vie dans le temps.

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Paper provided by University of Ottawa, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 0102E.

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Length: 34 pages
Date of creation: 2001
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ott:wpaper:0102e
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  7. Stephen Martin & John T. Scott, 1999. "The Nature of Innovation Market Failure and the Design of Public Support for Private Innovation," CIE Discussion Papers 1999-02, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
  8. Lakdawalla, Darius & Sood, Neeraj, 2004. "Social insurance and the design of innovation incentives," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 57-61, October.
  9. Klette, T.J. & Moen, J. & Griliches, Z., 1999. "Do Subsidies to Commercial R&D Reduce Market Failures? Microeconometric Evaluation Studies," Papers 16/99, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration-.
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