Rational Learning Leads to Nash Equilibrium
Each of n players, in an infinitely repeated game, starts with subjective beliefs about his opponents' strategies. If the individual beliefs are compatible with the true strategies chose, then Bayesian updating will lead in the long run to accurate prediction of the future of play of the game. It follows that individual players, who know their own payoff matrices and choose strategies to maximize their expected utility, must eventually play according to a Nash equilibrium of the repeated game. An immediate corollary is that, when playing a Harsanyi-Nash equilibrium of a repeated game of incomplete information about opponents' payoff matrices, players will eventually play a Nash equilibrium of the real game, as if they had complete information.
|Date of creation:||Mar 1990|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science, Northwestern University, 580 Jacobs Center, 2001 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-2014|
Web page: http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/research/math/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Email: |
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mertens, J.-F., 1986.
CORE Discussion Papers
1986024, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Mertens,Jean-François & Sorin,Sylvain & Zamir,Shmuel, 2015. "Repeated Games," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107030206, November.
- Mertens,Jean-François & Sorin,Sylvain & Zamir,Shmuel, 2015. "Repeated Games," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107662636, November.
- Fudenberg, Drew & Levine, David K, 1993.
"Steady State Learning and Nash Equilibrium,"
Econometric Society, vol. 61(3), pages 547-73, May.
- Rothschild, Michael, 1974. "A two-armed bandit theory of market pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 185-202, October.
- V. Prasnikar & A. Roth, 1998.
"Considerations of fairness and strategy: experimental data from sequential games,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
451, David K. Levine.
- Vesna Prasnikar & Alvin E. Roth, 1992. "Considerations of Fairness and Strategy: Experimental Data from Sequential Games," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(3), pages 865-888.
- repec:cor:louvrp:-636 is not listed on IDEAS
- Canning, David, 1992.
"Average behavior in learning models,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 442-472, August.
- Roth, Alvin E. & Vesna Prasnikar & Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara & Shmuel Zamir, 1991.
"Bargaining and Market Behavior in Jerusalem, Ljubljana, Pittsburgh, and Tokyo: An Experimental Study,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1068-95, December.
- Alvin E. Roth & V. Prasnikar & M. Okuno-Fujiwara & S. Zamir, 1998. "Bargaining and market behavior in Jerusalem, Liubljana, Pittsburgh and Tokyo: an experimental study," Levine's Working Paper Archive 344, David K. Levine.
- Kalai, Ehud & Lehrer, Ehud, 1994.
"Weak and strong merging of opinions,"
Journal of Mathematical Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 73-86, January.
- Kalai, Ehud & Lehrer, Ehud, 1993.
"Subjective Equilibrium in Repeated Games,"
Econometric Society, vol. 61(5), pages 1231-40, September.
- Jordan, J. S., 1985. "Learning rational expectations: The finite state case," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 257-276, August.
- Blume, L. E. & Bray, M. M. & Easley, D., 1982. "Introduction to the stability of rational expectations equilibrium," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 313-317, April.
- Nyarko, Yaw, 1991.
"Learning in mis-specified models and the possibility of cycles,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 416-427, December.
- Nyarko, Yaw, 1990. "Learning In Mis-Specified Models And The Possibility Of Cycles," Working Papers 90-03, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Woodford, Michael, 1986.
"Learning to Believe in Sunspots,"
86-16, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Aumann, Robert J. & Heifetz, Aviad, 2001.
1124, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Aumann, Robert J. & Heifetz, Aviad, 2002. "Incomplete information," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 43, pages 1665-1686 Elsevier.
- Lawrence Blume & David Easley, 1993. "Rational Expectations and Rational Learning," Game Theory and Information 9307003, EconWPA.
- Jordan, J. S., 1992. "The exponential convergence of Bayesian learning in normal form games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 202-217, April.
- Drew Fudenberg & David K. Levine, 1993.
Levine's Working Paper Archive
2147, David K. Levine.
- David Canning, 1989. "Convergence to Equilibrium in a Sequence for Games with Learning," STICERD - Theoretical Economics Paper Series 190, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Monderer Dov & Samet Dov, 1995. "Stochastic Common Learning," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 161-171, May.
- Grandmont Jean-michel & Laroque G, 1990. "Economic dynamics with learning : some instability examples," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9007, CEPREMAP.
- Jordan, J. S., 1991. "Bayesian learning in normal form games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 60-81, February.
- Pearce, David G, 1984. "Rationalizable Strategic Behavior and the Problem of Perfection," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 1029-50, July.
- Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1991. "Adaptive and sophisticated learning in normal form games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 82-100, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nwu:cmsems:925. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Fran Walker)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.