Why retailers cluster: An agent model of location choice on supply chains
This paper investigates the emergence of retail clusters on supply chains comprised of suppliers, retailers, and consumers. Agent-based models are employed to study retail location choice in a market of homogeneous goods and a market of complementary goods. On a circle comprised of discrete locales, retailers play a non-cooperative game by choosing locales to maximize profits which are impacted by their distance to consumers and to suppliers. Our findings disclose that in a market of homogeneous products symmetric distributions of retail clusters rise out of competition between individual retailers; average cluster density and cluster size change dynamically as retailers enter the market. In a market of two complementary goods, multiple equilibria of retail distributions are found to be common; a single cluster of retailers has the highest probability to emerge. Overall, our results show that retail clusters emerge from the balance between retailersâ€™ proximity to their customers, their competitors, their complements, and their suppliers.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Publication status:||Published in Environment and Planning b 38(1) pp. 82 - 94.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Dept. of Civil Engineering, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455|
Phone: +01 (612) 625-6354
Fax: +01 (612) 626-7750
Web page: http://nexus.umn.edu
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael Batty & Sanjay Rana, 2004. "The automatic definition and generation of axial lines and axial maps," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 31(4), pages 615-640, July.
- Head, Keith & Ries, John & Swenson, Deborah, 1995.
"Agglomeration benefits and location choice: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing investments in the United States,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 223-247, May.
- Keith Head & John Ries & Deborah Swenson, 1994. "Agglomeration Benefits and Location Choice: Evidence from Japanese Manufacturing Investment in the United States," NBER Working Papers 4767, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Feldman, Maryann & Schreuder, Yda, 1996. "Initial Advantage: The Origins of the Geographic Concentration of the Pharmaceutical Industry in the Mid-Atlantic Region," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 5(3), pages 839-862.
- Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 1995. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 857-880.
- Krugman, Paul & Venables, Anthony J, 1994. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," CEPR Discussion Papers 1015, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Krugman, Paul & Venables, Anthony J., 1995. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," Working Paper Series 430, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 1995. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," NBER Working Papers 5098, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Eric A. Nerlinger & Franz-Josef Bade, 2000. "The spatial distribution of new technology-based firms: Empirical results for West-Germany," Papers in Regional Science, Springer;Regional Science Association International, vol. 79(2), pages 155-176.
- Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano & Diego Puga, 1998. "Agglomeration in the Global Economy: A Survey of the 'New Economic Geography'," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(6), pages 707-731, 08.
- Ottaviano, Gianmarco & Puga, Diego, 1997. "Agglomeration in the Global Economy: A Survey of the 'New Economic Geography'," CEPR Discussion Papers 1699, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Kaihara, Toshiya, 2003. "Multi-agent based supply chain modelling with dynamic environment," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 263-269, August.
- Nooteboom, B. & Gilsing, V.A., 2004. "Density And Strength Of Ties In Innovation Networks: A Competence And Governance View," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-005-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Nooteboom, B. & Gilsing, V.A., 2005. "Density and Strength of Ties in Innovation Networks : A Competence and Governance View," Discussion Paper 2005-40, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Nooteboom, B. & Gilsing, V.A., 2004. "Density and strength of ties in innovation networks: a competence and governance view," Working Papers 04.01, Eindhoven Center for Innovation Studies.
- J Peponis & J Wineman & S Bafna & M Rashid & S H Kim, 1998. "On the generation of linear representations of spatial configuration," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 25(4), pages 559-576, July.
- David Levinson & Ajay Kumar, 1995. "A Multi-modal Trip Distribution Model," Working Papers 199503, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
- Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
- Paul Krugman, 1990. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," NBER Working Papers 3275, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Eaton, B Curtis & Lipsey, Richard G, 1982. "An Economic Theory of Central Places," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 56-72, March.
- Nagurney, Anna & Dong, June & Zhang, Ding, 2002. "A supply chain network equilibrium model," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 281-303, September.
- Jungyul Sohn, 2004. "Do birds of a feather flock together?: Economic linkage and geographic proximity," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 38(1), pages 47-73, 03.
- Maskell, Peter & Malmberg, Anders, 1999. "Localised Learning and Industrial Competitiveness," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 167-185, March.
- Venables, Anthony J, 1996. "Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(2), pages 341-359, May.
- Anthony J. Venables, 1993. "Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries," CEP Discussion Papers dp0137, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Venables, Anthony J, 1993. "Equilibrium Locations of Vertically Linked Industries," CEPR Discussion Papers 802, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- repec:hhs:iuiwop:430 is not listed on IDEAS
- Quinzii, Martine & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1990. "On the Optimality of Central Places," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(5), pages 1101-1119, September.
- QUINZII, Martine & THISSE, Jacques-François, "undated". "On the optimality of central places," CORE Discussion Papers RP 907, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Jan Ritsema van Eck & Eric Koomen, 2008. "Characterising urban concentration and land-use diversity in simulations of future land use," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 42(1), pages 123-140, March.
- Head, C. Keith & Ries, John C. & Swenson, Deborah L., 1999. "Attracting foreign manufacturing: Investment promotion and agglomeration," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 197-218, March.
- Peter Maskell & Leïla Kebir, 2005. "What qualifies as a cluster theory?," DRUID Working Papers 05-09, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Steven Klepper, 2002. "The capabilities of new firms and the evolution of the US automobile industry," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(4), pages 645-666, August.
- L Sanders & D Pumain & H Mathian & F Guérin-Pace & S Bura, 1997. "SIMPOP: a multiagent system for the study of urbanism," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 24(2), pages 287-305, March.
- Ron Johnston & David Voas & Michael Poulsen, 2003. "Measuring spatial concentration: the use of threshold profiles," Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 30(1), pages 3-14, January.
- Anders Malmberg & Dominic Power, 2005. "(How) Do (Firms in) Clusters Create Knowledge?," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 409-431.
- Bergsman, Joel & Greenston, Peter & Healy, Robert, 1975. "A classification of economic activities based on location patterns," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 1-28, January. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nex:wpaper:retailpaper. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (David Levinson)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.