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Globalization and International Commodity Trade with Specific Reference to the West African Cocoa Producers

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  • Christopher L. Gilbert
  • Panos Varangis

Abstract

Liberalization of tropical agricultural markets has brought globalization, in the sense that all producers now face world rather than domestic prices. Producer prices have tended to rise as a share of fob prices as intermediation costs and tax has declined. However, in conjunction with inelastic demand, the downward shift of the aggregate supply curve results in lower world prices. Farmers therefore get a higher share of a lower price. Cocoa is the market where these changes have been most pronounced. The incidence of the liberalization benefits in cocoa is largely on developed country consumers at the expense of the governments of the exporting countries and farmers in non-liberalizing (non-African) countries. Farmers in liberalized African markets are broadly neither better nor worse off.

Suggested Citation

  • Christopher L. Gilbert & Panos Varangis, 2003. "Globalization and International Commodity Trade with Specific Reference to the West African Cocoa Producers," NBER Working Papers 9668, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:9668
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Julie Subervie, 2008. "The Variable Response of Agricultural Supply to World Price Instability in Developing Countries," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(1), pages 72-92, February.
    2. Kym Anderson, 2005. "Agricultural trade reform and poverty reduction in developing countries," Chapters,in: Trade Policy Reforms and Development, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Wilcox, Michael D. & Abbott, Philip C., 2006. "Can Cocoa Farmer Organizations Countervail Buyer Market Power?," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21261, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    4. Bardhan, Pranab, 2006. "Globalization and rural poverty," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1393-1404, August.
    5. Rodrik, Dani, 2005. "Growth Strategies," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 967-1014 Elsevier.
    6. Pranab Bardhan, 2006. "Globalization, Inequality, and Poverty," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 9126, Inter-American Development Bank.
    7. Pranab Bardhan, 2006. "Globalization, Inequality, and Poverty," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 2329, Inter-American Development Bank.
    8. Acharya, Rohini & Daly, Michael, 2004. "Selected issues concerning the multilateral trading system," WTO Discussion Papers 7, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    9. Burger, Kees, 2008. "Optimal export taxes – the case of cocoa in Cote d'Ivoire," 107th Seminar, January 30-February 1, 2008, Sevilla, Spain 6395, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    10. Yeboah, Osei-Agyeman & Shaik, Saleem & Wozniak, Shawn J. & Allen, Albert J., 2008. "Increased Cocoa Bean Exports under Trade Liberalization: A Gravity Model Approach," 2008 Annual Meeting, February 2-6, 2008, Dallas, Texas 6819, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    11. Abbott, Philip C., 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Cote d’Ivoire," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper 48522, World Bank.
    12. V. Dhanya, 2008. "Liberalisation of tropical commodity market and adding-up problem: A Bound test approach," Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum Working Papers 399, Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum, India.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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