Globalization and International Commodity Trade with Specific Reference to the West African Cocoa Producers
Liberalization of tropical agricultural markets has brought globalization, in the sense that all producers now face world rather than domestic prices. Producer prices have tended to rise as a share of fob prices as intermediation costs and tax has declined. However, in conjunction with inelastic demand, the downward shift of the aggregate supply curve results in lower world prices. Farmers therefore get a higher share of a lower price. Cocoa is the market where these changes have been most pronounced. The incidence of the liberalization benefits in cocoa is largely on developed country consumers at the expense of the governments of the exporting countries and farmers in non-liberalizing (non-African) countries. Farmers in liberalized African markets are broadly neither better nor worse off.
|Date of creation:||May 2003|
|Publication status:||published as Baldwin, Robert E. and L. Alan Winters (eds.) Challenges to globalization: Analyzing the economics NBER Economic Research Conference Report series. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2004.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Takamasa Akiyama & John Baffes & Donald Larson & Panos Varangis, 2001. "Commodity Market Reforms : Lessons of Two Decades," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13852.
- Gilbert, Christopher L., 1987. "International commodity agreements: Design and performance," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 591-616, May.
- Paxson, C.H., 1991.
"Consumption And Income Seasonality In Thailand,"
150, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
- Newbery, David M, 1989. "The Theory of Food Price Stabilisation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(398), pages 1065-82, December.
- Akiyama, Takamasa & Larson, Donald F. & DEC, 1994. "The adding-up problem : strategies for primary commodity exports in sub-Saharan Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1245, The World Bank.
- Gilbert, Christopher L., 1996. "International Commodity Agreements: An obituary notice," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-19, January.
- Kala Krishna, 1995.
"The Adding Up Problem: A Targeting Approach,"
NBER Working Papers
4999, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kala Krishna, 1998. "The adding up problem: a targeting approach," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(2), pages 151-173.
- Schiff, Maurice, 1994. "Commodity exports and the adding up problem in developing countries : trade, investment, and lending policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1338, The World Bank.
- Kanbur, S M Ravi, 1984. "How to Analyse Commodity Price Stabilization? A Review Article," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(3), pages 336-58, November.
- Pagan, Adrian, 1984. "Econometric Issues in the Analysis of Regressions with Generated Regressors," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 25(1), pages 221-47, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:9668. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.