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Relational Costs and the Production of Social Capital: Evidence from Carpooling

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  • Kerwin Charles
  • Patrick Kline

Abstract

This paper posits that individuals can more easily form social connections with persons of the same race. If true, the greater the incidence among his neighbors of persons of his race, the more likely an individual is to make neighborhood social capital connections, and the more likely he is to engage in activities which require it. The paper tests this idea using an indicator of individual social capital never previously studied: whether the person uses a carpool to get to work. We identify exogenous variation in adult neighborhood racial makeup arising from the racial makeup of the state in which the person was born in the year that he was born, and relate this exogenous portion of adult neighborhood racial composition to individual carpooling propensity using a TSLS approach. The results from this analysis, and from robustness tests which focus on neighborhoods with virtually identical racial distributions, show evidence of strong cross-racial relational difficulties, but interestingly, only for particular pairs of racial groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Kerwin Charles & Patrick Kline, 2002. "Relational Costs and the Production of Social Capital: Evidence from Carpooling," NBER Working Papers 9041, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:9041
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Smart, 2015. "A nationwide look at the immigrant neighborhood effect on travel mode choice," Transportation, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 189-209, January.
    2. Cathy Yang Liu & Gary Painter, 2010. "Travel Behavior among Latino Immigrants: The Role of Ethnic Neighborhoods and Ethnic Employment," Working Paper 8516, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    3. Faillo, Marco & Grieco, Daniela & Zarri, Luca, 2012. "Cultural Diversity, Cooperation,and Anti-social Punishment," AICCON Working Papers 102-2012, Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit.
    4. Evelyn Blumenberg & Michael Smart, 2010. "Getting by with a little help from my friends…and family: immigrants and carpooling," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 429-446, May.
    5. Hayley H. Chouinard & Gregmar I. Galinato & Philip R. Wandschneider, 2016. "Making Friends To Influence Others: Entry And Contribution Decisions That Affect Social Capital In An Association," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 54(2), pages 819-834, April.
    6. Furuhata, Masabumi & Dessouky, Maged & Ordóñez, Fernando & Brunet, Marc-Etienne & Wang, Xiaoqing & Koenig, Sven, 2013. "Ridesharing: The state-of-the-art and future directions," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 28-46.
    7. Jun Guan Neoh & Maxwell Chipulu & Alasdair Marshall, 2017. "What encourages people to carpool? An evaluation of factors with meta-analysis," Transportation, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 423-447, March.
    8. Videras, Julio & Owen, Ann L. & Conover, Emily & Wu, Stephen, 2012. "The influence of social relationships on pro-environment behaviors," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 35-50.
    9. Edward L. Glaeser & David I. Laibson & José A. Scheinkman & Christine L. Soutter, 2000. "Measuring Trust," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(3), pages 811-846.
      • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Laibson, David I. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Soutter, Christine L., 2000. "Measuring Trust," Scholarly Articles 4481497, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    10. Kevin Lang & Jee-Yeon K. Lehmann, 2012. "Racial Discrimination in the Labor Market: Theory and Empirics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(4), pages 959-1006, December.
    11. Lovejoy, Kristin & Handy, Susan, 2011. "Social networks as a source of private-vehicle transportation: The practice of getting rides and borrowing vehicles among Mexican immigrants in California," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 248-257, May.
    12. Abdul Munasib, 2007. "Social Capital at the Individual Level A Reduced Form Analysis," Economics Working Paper Series 0703, Oklahoma State University, Department of Economics and Legal Studies in Business.
    13. Yogo, Urbain Thierry, 2009. "Le Capital Social: Entre Evidences Théoriques et Balbutiemments Empiriques
      [Social Capital: Theoretical Evidence and empirical issues]
      ," MPRA Paper 19441, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. David J. Deming, 2015. "The Growing Importance of Social Skills in the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 21473, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Shoji, Masahiro & Aoyagi, Keitaro & Kasahara, Ryuji & Sawada, Yasuyuki & Ueyama, Mika, 2012. "Social Capital Formation and Credit Access: Evidence from Sri Lanka," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(12), pages 2522-2536.
    16. Schaeffer, Merlin, 2013. "Ethnic diversity, public goods provision and social cohesion: Lessons from an inconclusive literature," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Migration, Integration, Transnationalization SP VI 2013-103, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    17. repec:spr:anresc:v:60:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s00168-017-0848-z is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Durlauf, Steven N. & Fafchamps, Marcel, 2005. "Social Capital," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 26, pages 1639-1699 Elsevier.

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    JEL classification:

    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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