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Trade Blocs, Currency Blocs and the Disintegration of World Trade in the 1930s

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  • Barry Eichengreen
  • Douglas A. Irwin

Abstract

The dramatic implosion and regionalization of international trade during the 1930s has often been blamed on the trade and foreign exchange policies that emerged in the interwar period. We provide new evidence on the impact of trade and currency blocs on trade flows from 1928 1938 that suggests a blanket indictment of interwar trade policies and payments arrangements is not warranted. Discriminatory trade policies and international monetary arrangements had neither a uniformly favorable nor unfavorable implication for world trade; instead the balance of trade-creating and trade-diverting effects depended on the motivations of policymakers and hence on the structure of their policies. We find, for example, that British Commonwealth tariff preferences affected trade more significantly than the sterling-bloc currency area, but both promoted within-group trade without diverting trade away from non-members. Exchange controls and bilateral clearing arrangements enacted by German and Central and Eastern European countries, by contrast, dominated other commercial policies in altering trade patterns, but curtailed trade with non-members with no offsetting trade-creating effects. We also find support for Ragnar Nurkse 's famous hypothesis that exchange-rate volatility in the interwar period diminished trade. Our results speak to the emerging regional trade and currency areas of today, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the EC's Single Market and European Monetary System, and suggest that their impact lies not in the regional or global character of the policy initiative, but in the structure and design of the underlying policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Barry Eichengreen & Douglas A. Irwin, 1993. "Trade Blocs, Currency Blocs and the Disintegration of World Trade in the 1930s," NBER Working Papers 4445, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4445
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    1. Kitson, M., 1992. "The Move to Autarky: The Political Economy of Nazi Trade Policy," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9201, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    2. Burda, Michael & Wyplosz, Charles, 2017. "Macroeconomics: a European Text," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 7, number 9780198737513, Decembrie.
    3. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Shang-Jin Wei, 1994. "Yen Bloc or Dollar Bloc? Exchange Rate Policies of the East Asian Economies," NBER Chapters, in: Macroeconomic Linkage: Savings, Exchange Rates, and Capital Flows, pages 295-333, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Wei, Shang-Jin, 1995. "European Integration and the Regionalization of World Trade and Currencies: The Economics and the Politics," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233413, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    2. Ms. Giorgia Albertin, 2008. "Trade Effects of Currency Unions: Do Economic Dissimilarities Matter?," IMF Working Papers 2008/249, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Kang, In-bong, 2001. "The Yield Curve, Inflation Expectations, and Economic Uncertainty," KDI Policy Studies 2001-01, Korea Development Institute (KDI).
    4. Garcia-Lazaro, Aida & Mistak, Jakub & Gulcin Ozkan, F., 2021. "Supply chain networks, trade and the Brexit deal: a general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    5. Haruka Yane, 2013. "Prospects for Trade in Intermediates and Trade in Services: What Does the Gravity Model of Bilateral Trade Tell Us?," OSIPP Discussion Paper 13E002, Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University.
    6. Ayuso-Díaz, Alejandro, 2022. "Natural trading partners versus empires in East and Southeast Asia regional integration (1840-1938)," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    7. Alberto Alesina & Robert J. Barro & Silvana Tenreyro, 2003. "Optimal Currency Areas," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2002, Volume 17, pages 301-356, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Jeffrey A. Frankel and Shang-Jin Wei., 1993. "Emerging Currency Blocs," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-026, University of California at Berkeley.
    9. Kool, C. J. M. & Koedijk, K. G., 1997. "Real exchange rates between the wars," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 211-232, April.

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    JEL classification:

    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

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