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European Integration and the Regionalization of World Trade and Currencies: The Economics and the Politics

Listed author(s):
  • Jeffrey A. Frankel and Shang-Jin Wei.

Using the gravity model, we find evidence that the EC affects trade flows. A pair of EC members trade with each other 48 percent more than two otherwise similarly-placed countries. We also find that bilateral exchange rate variability fell by half within Europe during the 1980s, and that this stability worked to increase intra-continental trade by an estimated 5.9 percent. If account is taken of the endogeneity of the currency regime, the estimated effect of bilateral exchange rate variability on trade is much smaller. The political economy part of the paper catalogues ways in which regional arrangements undermine political support for multilateral liberalization, and ways in which they can have the opposite effect.

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Paper provided by University of California at Berkeley in its series Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers with number C95-053.

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Date of creation: 01 Jun 1995
Handle: RePEc:ucb:calbcd:c95-053
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  1. Bagwell, Kyle & Staiger, Robert W., 1997. "Multilateral tariff cooperation during the formation of customs unions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 91-123, February.
  2. Bagwell, Kyle & Staiger, Robert W, 1997. "Multilateral Tariff Cooperation during the Formation of Free Trade Areas," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(2), pages 291-319, May.
  3. Kyle Bagwell & Robert W. Staiger, 1993. "Multilateral Tarriff Cooperation During the Formation of Regional Free Trade Areas," NBER Working Papers 4364, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1995. "The Politics of Free-Trade Agreements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 667-690, September.
  5. Hamilton, C.B. & Winters, L.A., 1992. "Opening Up International Trade in Eastern Europe," Papers 511, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  6. Eichengreen, Barry & Irwin, Douglas, 1993. "Trade Blocs, Currency Blocs and the Disintegration of World Trade in the 1930s," CEPR Discussion Papers 837, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Helpman, Elhanan, 1987. "Imperfect competition and international trade: Evidence from fourteen industrial countries," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 62-81, March.
  8. Paul De Grauwe, 1988. "Exchange Rate Variability and the Slowdown in Growth of International Trade," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(1), pages 63-84, March.
  9. Gary R. Saxonhouse, 1993. "Pricing Strategies and Trading Blocs in East Asia," NBER Chapters,in: Regionalism and Rivalry: Japan and the United States in Pacific Asia, pages 89-124 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Carlo Perroni & John Whalley, 2000. "The new regionalism: trade liberalization or insurance?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(1), pages 1-24, February.
  11. Krueger, Anne O., 1997. "Free trade agreements versus customs unions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 169-187, October.
  12. Eichengreen, Barry, 1990. "One Money for Europe? Lessons from the US Currency Union," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt6ks1k831, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  13. Nagaoka Sadao, 1994. "Does Regional Integration Promote Global Liberalization? A Case of Endogenous Protection," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 551-564, December.
  14. Fernandez, Raquel & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Resistance to Reform: Status Quo Bias in the Presence of Individual-Specific Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1146-1155, December.
  15. Jon D. Haveman, 1996. "Some Welfare Effects of Sequential Customs Union Formation," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 29(4), pages 941-958, November.
  16. Brada, Josef C & Mendez, Jose, 1988. "Exchange Rate Risk, Exchange Rate Regime and the Volume of International Trade," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 263-280.
  17. Barry Eichengreen & Charles Wyplosz, 1993. "The Unstable EMS," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 24(1), pages 51-144.
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