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'Outside' Intervention in Japanese Companies: Its Determinants and Implications for Mangers

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  • Steven Kaplan
  • Bernadette Minton

Abstract

This paper estimates the determinants of appointments of 'outsiders' -- directors previously employed by banks or other non-financial firms -- to the boards of large (non-financial) Japanese companies. Appointments of both types of 'outsiders' increase with poor stock performance; those of bank outsiders also increase with negative current income. Appointments of bank outsiders are related to firm debt levels; those of corporate outsiders, to shareholder concentration and group affiliation, Both types of outsider appointments appear to be disciplinary -- top executive turnover increase substantially in the same year. Additional evidence on subsequent firm performance suggests that "bank" directors are appointed in financially distressed or contracting firms, while "corporate" directors are appointed in firms with temporary problems.

Suggested Citation

  • Steven Kaplan & Bernadette Minton, 1993. "'Outside' Intervention in Japanese Companies: Its Determinants and Implications for Mangers," NBER Working Papers 4276, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4276
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1991. "Corporate Structure, Liquidity, and Investment: Evidence from Japanese Industrial Groups," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(1), pages 33-60.
    2. Grundfest, Joseph A., 1990. "Subordination of American capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 89-114, September.
    3. Hoshi, Takeo & Kashyap, Anil & Scharfstein, David, 1990. "The role of banks in reducing the costs of financial distress in Japan," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 67-88, September.
    4. Masahiko Aoki, 2013. "Toward an Economic Model of the Japanese Firm," Chapters,in: Comparative Institutional Analysis, chapter 18, pages 315-341 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Weisbach, Michael S., 1988. "Outside directors and CEO turnover," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 431-460, January.
    6. Steven N. Kaplan, 1992. "Top Executive Rewards and Firm Performance: A Comparison of Japan and the U.S," NBER Working Papers 4065, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Sheard, Paul, 1989. "The main bank system and corporate monitoring and control in Japan," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 399-422, May.
    8. Prowse, Stephen D, 1992. " The Structure of Corporate Ownership in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 1121-1140, July.
    9. Randall Morck & Masao Nakamura, 1999. "Banks and Corporate Control in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(1), pages 319-339, February.
    10. Stephen D. Prowse, 1990. "Institutional investment patterns and corporate financial behavior in the U.S. and Japan," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 108, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    Cited by:

    1. Francesco Giavazzi & Marco Battaglini, "undated". "Should we trust banks when they sit on the board of directors?," Working Papers 117, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    2. Randall Morck & Masao Nakamura, 2000. "Japanese Corporate Governance and Macroeconomic Problems," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1893, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
    3. Takeo Hoshi & Anil Kashyap & David Scharfstein, 1993. "The Choice Between Public and Private Debt: An Analysis of Post-Deregulation Corporate Financing in Japan," NBER Working Papers 4421, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Kaplan, Steven N, 1994. "Top Executives, Turnover, and Firm Performance in Germany," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(1), pages 142-159, April.
    5. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.

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