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Socioeconomic Network Heterogeneity and Pandemic Policy Response

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Listed:
  • Mohammad Akbarpour
  • Cody Cook
  • Aude Marzuoli
  • Simon Mongey
  • Abhishek Nagaraj
  • Matteo Saccarola
  • Pietro Tebaldi
  • Shoshana Vasserman
  • Hanbin Yang

Abstract

We develop a heterogeneous-agents network-based model to analyze alternative policies during a pandemic outbreak, accounting for health and economic trade-offs within the same empirical framework. We leverage a variety of data sources, including data on individuals' mobility and encounters across metropolitan areas, health records, and measures of the possibility to be productively working from home. This combination of data sources allows us to build a framework in which the severity of a disease outbreak varies across locations and industries, and across individuals who differ by age, occupation, and preexisting health conditions. We use this framework to analyze the impact of different social distancing policies in the context of the COVID-19 outbreaks across US metropolitan areas. Our results highlight how outcomes vary across areas in relation to the underlying heterogeneity in population density, social network structures, population health, and employment characteristics. We find that policies by which individuals who can work from home continue to do so, or in which schools and firms alternate schedules across different groups of students and employees, can be effective in limiting the health and healthcare costs of the pandemic outbreak while also reducing employment losses.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohammad Akbarpour & Cody Cook & Aude Marzuoli & Simon Mongey & Abhishek Nagaraj & Matteo Saccarola & Pietro Tebaldi & Shoshana Vasserman & Hanbin Yang, 2020. "Socioeconomic Network Heterogeneity and Pandemic Policy Response," NBER Working Papers 27374, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:27374
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    Cited by:

    1. Alexander Chudik & M. Hashem Pesaran & Alessandro Rebucci, 2022. "Social Distancing, Vaccination and Evolution of COVID-19 Transmission Rates in Europe," Globalization Institute Working Papers 414, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, revised 12 Jul 2022.
    2. M. Hashem Pesaran & Cynthia Fan Yang, 2022. "Matching theory and evidence on Covid‐19 using a stochastic network SIR model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 37(6), pages 1204-1229, September.
    3. Engy Ziedan & Kosali I. Simon & Coady Wing, 2020. "Effects of State COVID-19 Closure Policy on NON-COVID-19 Health Care Utilization," NBER Working Papers 27621, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Rahul Deb & Mallesh Pai & Akhil Vohra & Rakesh Vohra, 2022. "Testing alone is insufficient," Review of Economic Design, Springer;Society for Economic Design, vol. 26(1), pages 1-21, March.
    5. Dylan Balla-Elliott & Zoë B. Cullen & Edward L. Glaeser & Michael Luca & Christopher T. Stanton, 2020. "Determinants of Small Business Reopening Decisions After COVID Restrictions Were Lifted," NBER Working Papers 27362, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Simon Mongey & Laura Pilossoph & Alexander Weinberg, 2021. "Which workers bear the burden of social distancing?," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 19(3), pages 509-526, September.
    7. Yasushi Iwamoto, 2021. "Welfare economics of managing an epidemic: an exposition," The Japanese Economic Review, Springer, vol. 72(4), pages 537-579, October.
    8. Ely, Jeffrey & Galeotti, Andrea & Steiner, Jakub, 2020. "Rotation as Contagion Mitigation," CEPR Discussion Papers 14953, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Morikawa, Masayuki, 2021. "Work-from-Home Productivity during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Surveys of Employees and Employers," SSPJ Discussion Paper Series DP20-007, Service Sector Productivity in Japan: Determinants and Policies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    10. Leonardo Bursztyn & Aakaash Rao & Christopher Roth & David Yanagizawa-Drott, 2022. "Opinions as Facts," ECONtribute Discussion Papers Series 159, University of Bonn and University of Cologne, Germany.
    11. Greg Kaplan & Benjamin Moll & Giovanni L. Violante, 2020. "The Great Lockdown and the Big Stimulus: Tracing the Pandemic Possibility Frontier for the U.S," NBER Working Papers 27794, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Alexander Chudik & M. Hashem Pesaran & Alessandro Rebucci, 2021. "COVID-19 Time-Varying Reproduction Numbers Worldwide: An Empirical Analysis of Mandatory and Voluntary Social Distancing," Globalization Institute Working Papers 407, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    13. Marina Azzimonti & Alessandra Fogli & Fabrizio Perri & Mark Ponder, 2020. "Pandemic Control in ECON-EPI Networks," NBER Working Papers 27741, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Bursztyn, Leonardo & Rao, Akaash & Roth, Christopher & Yanagizawa-Drott, David, 2020. "Misinformation during a Pandemic," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1274, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    15. Thomas Kruse & Philipp Strack, 2020. "Optimal Control of an Epidemic through Social Distancing," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 2229R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jul 2020.
    16. MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2020. "Productivity of Working from Home during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from an Employee Survey," Discussion papers 20073, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    17. Fabian Lorig & Emil Johansson & Paul Davidsson, 2021. "Agent-Based Social Simulation of the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 24(3), pages 1-5.
    18. Jiansuo Pei & Gaaitzen de Vries & Meng Zhang, 2022. "International trade and Covid‐19: City‐level evidence from China's lockdown policy," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(3), pages 670-695, June.
    19. Bursztyn, Leonardo & Rao, Aakaash & Roth, Christopher & Yanagizawa-Drott, David, 2020. "Misinformation During a Pandemic," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 481, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    20. Toru Kitagawa & Guanyi Wang, 2021. "Who should get vaccinated? Individualized allocation of vaccines over SIR network," CeMMAP working papers CWP28/21, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    21. Leonardo Melosi & Matthias Rottner, 2020. "Pandemic Recessions and Contact Tracing," Working Paper Series WP-2020-31, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    22. Dylan Balla‐Elliott & Zoë B. Cullen & Edward L. Glaeser & Michael Luca & Christopher Stanton, 2022. "Determinants Of Small Business Reopening Decisions After Covid Restrictions Were Lifted," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 41(1), pages 278-317, January.
    23. Masayuki Morikawa, 2022. "Work‐from‐home productivity during the COVID‐19 pandemic: Evidence from Japan," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 60(2), pages 508-527, April.
    24. MORIKAWA Masayuki, 2021. "Productivity of Working from Home during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from a Firm Survey," Discussion papers 21002, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    25. Bar-On, Yinon & Baron, Tatiana & Cornfeld, Ofer & Milo, Ron & Yashiv, Eran, 2020. "Caveats for Economists: Epidemiology-Based Modelling of COVID19 and Model Misspecifications," CEPR Discussion Papers 15107, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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    JEL classification:

    • H12 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Crisis Management
    • H75 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - State and Local Government: Health, Education, and Welfare
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health

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