Unintended Consequences of LOLR Facilities: The Case of Illiquid Leverage
While the direct effect of lender-of-last-resort (LOLR) facilities is to forestall the default of financial firms that lose funding liquidity, an indirect effect is to allow these firms to minimize deleveraging sales of illiquid assets. This unintended consequence of LOLR facilities manifests itself as excess illiquid leverage in the financial sector, can make future liquidity shortfalls more likely, and can lead to an increase in default risks. Furthermore, this increase in default risk can occur despite the fact that the combination of LOLR facilities and reduced asset sales raises the prices of illiquid assets. The behavior of U.S. broker-dealers during the crisis of 2007-2009 is consistent with the unintended consequence just described. In particular, given the Federal Reserve's LOLR facilities, broker-dealers could afford to try to wait out the crisis. While they did reduce traditional measures of leverage to varying degrees, they failed to reduce sufficiently their illiquid leverage, which contributed to their failures or near failures. Several mechanisms that might address this unintended consequence of LOLR facili--ties are explored: condition LOLR access and terms on the financial health of borrowers; condition LOLR access and terms on asset sales and deleveraging; and, especially, in--stead of supporting troubled financial firms, open LOLR facilities to financially sound, potential buyers of illiquid assets.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||CF IFM ME|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Viral Acharya & Tanju Yorulmazer, 2007.
"Cash-in-the-market pricing and optimal resolution of bank failures,"
Bank of England working papers
328, Bank of England.
- Viral V. Acharya & Tanju Yorulmazer, 2008. "Cash-in-the-Market Pricing and Optimal Resolution of Bank Failures," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(6), pages 2705-2742, November.
- Gary Gorton & Andrew Metrick, 2010.
"Securitized Banking and the Run on Repo,"
in: Market Institutions and Financial Market Risk
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary B. Gorton & Andrew Metrick, 2009. "Securitized Banking and the Run on Repo," NBER Working Papers 15223, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary Gorton & Andrew Metrick, 2009. "Securitized Banking and the Run on Repo," Yale School of Management Working Papers amz2358, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Sep 2009.
- Michael J. Fleming, 2012.
"Federal Reserve liquidity provision during the financial crisis of 2007-2009,"
563, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Michael J. Fleming, 2012. "Federal Reserve Liquidity Provision during the Financial Crisis of 2007–2009," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 4(1), pages 161-177, October.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2011. "Fear of Fire Sales, Illiquidity Seeking, and Credit Freezes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(2), pages 557-591.
- Zhiguo He & In Gu Khang & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2010. "Balance Sheet Adjustments during the 2008 Crisis," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 58(1), pages 118-156, August.
- Acharya, Viral V & Rajan, Raghuram G, 2011.
"Sovereign debt, government myopia, and the financial sector,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
8668, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Viral V. Acharya & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2013. "Sovereign Debt, Government Myopia, and the Financial Sector," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(6), pages 1526-1560.
- Viral V. Acharya & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2011. "Sovereign Debt, Government Myopia, and the Financial Sector," NBER Working Papers 17542, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2007.
"Market liquidity and funding liquidity,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
24478, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Brunnermeier, Markus K & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," CEPR Discussion Papers 6179, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Lasse Heje Pederson & Markus K Brunnermeier, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," FMG Discussion Papers dp580, Financial Markets Group.
- Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2007. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," NBER Working Papers 12939, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2003.
"Liquidity Shortages and Banking Crises,"
NBER Working Papers
10071, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mark J. Flannery, 1996.
"Financial crises, payment system problems, and discount window lending,"
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 804-831.
- Flannery, Mark J, 1996. "Financial Crises, Payment System Problems, and Discount Window Lending," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 804-24, November.
- Acharya, Viral V. & Fleming, Michael J. & Hrung, Warren B. & Sarkar, Asani, 2014. "Dealer financial conditions and lender-of-last resort facilities," Staff Reports 673, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Ricardo J. Caballero & Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2008.
"Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1943-77, December.
- Ricardo J. Caballero & Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2006. "Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan," NBER Working Papers 12129, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zhiguo He & In Gu Khang & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2010. "Balance Sheet Adjustments in the 2008 Crisis," NBER Working Papers 15919, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19773. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.