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Place Based Policies with Unemployment

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  • Patrick Kline
  • Enrico Moretti

Abstract

Many countries have policies aimed at creating jobs in depressed areas with high unemployment rates. In standard spatial equilibrium models with perfectly competitive labor and land markets, local job creation efforts are distortionary. We develop a stylized model of frictional local labor markets with the goal of studying the efficiency of unemployment differences across areas and the potential for place based policies to correct local market failures. Our model builds on the heavily studied Diamond - Mortensen - Pissarides framework, adapted to a local labor market setting with a competitive housing market. The result is a simple search analogue of the classic Roback (1982) model that provides a tractable environment for studying the effects of local job creation efforts. In the model, workers are perfectly mobile and the productivity of worker-firm matches may vary across metropolitan areas. In equilibrium, higher local productivity results in higher nominal wages, higher housing costs, and lower unemployment rates. Although workers can move freely to arbitrage away differences in expected utility across metropolitan areas, equilibrium unemployment rates are not equalized across space. We find that if hiring costs are excessive, firms may post too few vacancies. This problem may be offset via local hiring subsidies of the sort found in many place based policies. The optimal hiring subsidy is city specific in the sense that it depends upon the local productivity level.

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  • Patrick Kline & Enrico Moretti, 2013. "Place Based Policies with Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 18758, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18758 Note: LS PE
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    Cited by:

    1. Elias Einiö & Henry G. Overman, 2016. "The (Displacement) Effects of Spatially Targeted Enterprise Initiatives: Evidence from UK LEGI," SERC Discussion Papers 0191, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
    2. Behaghel, Luc & Lorenceau, Adrien & Quantin, Simon, 2015. "Replacing churches and mason lodges? Tax exemptions and rural development," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 1-15.
    3. Patrick Kline & Enrico Moretti, 2013. "Place Based Policies with Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 238-243, May.
    4. Xavier Giroud & Holger M. Mueller, 2016. "Redistribution of Local Labor Market Shocks through Firms’ Internal Networks," NBER Working Papers 22396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Wenhua Di & Daniel L. Millimet, 2017. "Targeted business incentives and the debt behavior of households," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 1115-1142, May.
    6. Lutgen, Vanessa & Van der Linden, Bruno, 2015. "Regional equilibrium unemployment theory at the age of the Internet," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 50-67.
    7. Javier Vázquez-Grenno & Jordi Jofre-Monseny & José I. Silva, 2016. "Local labor market effects of public employment," Working Papers 2016/11, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    8. Breinlich, Holger & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P. & Temple, Jonathan R.W., 2014. "Regional Growth and Regional Decline," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 4, pages 683-779 Elsevier.
    9. Patrick Kline & Enrico Moretti, 2014. "People, Places, and Public Policy: Some Simple Welfare Economics of Local Economic Development Programs," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 629-662, August.
    10. Ioannides, Yannis M., 2015. "Neighborhoods to nations via social interactions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 5-15.
    11. Florian MAYNERIS & Loriane PY, 2013. "The Efficiency Of Enterprise Zone Programs Some Conflicting Results?," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 38, pages 209-224.
    12. Wrede, Matthias, 2012. "Wages, rents, unemployment, and the quality of life," FAU Discussion Papers in Economics 01/2012 [rev.], Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Economics.
    13. Moretti, Enrico & Wilson, Daniel J., 2014. "State incentives for innovation, star scientists and jobs: Evidence from biotech," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 20-38.
    14. Matthias Wrede, 2015. "Akzeptanz der Förderung gleichwertiger Lebensverhältnisse und Arbeitsbedingungen," Review of Regional Research: Jahrbuch für Regionalwissenschaft, Springer;Gesellschaft für Regionalforschung (GfR), vol. 35(1), pages 103-119, February.
    15. Xavier Giroud & Holger M. Mueller, 2017. "Redistribution of Local Labor Market Shocks through Firms’ Internal Networks," Working Papers 17-03, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    16. Matthias Wrede, 2015. "Wages, Rents, Unemployment, And The Quality Of Life: A Consistent Theory-Based Measure," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(4), pages 609-625, September.
    17. Hans R.A. Koster & Jos van Ommeren, 2017. "Place-based policies and the housing market," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 17-008/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    18. Michael Amior & Alan Manning, 2015. "The Persistence of Local Joblessness," CEP Discussion Papers dp1357, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    19. Hans Koster & Fang Fang Cheng & Michiel Gerritse & Frank van Oort, 2016. "Place-based Policies, Firm Productivity and Displacement Effects: Evidence from Shenzhen, China," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 16-021/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    20. Sachiko Kazekami, 2017. "Evaluating place-based job creation programs in Japan," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 6(1), pages 1-27, December.
    21. repec:kap:jgeosy:v:19:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10109-017-0249-y is not listed on IDEAS
    22. repec:esx:essedp:729 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Jofre-Monseny, Jordi, 2014. "The effects of unemployment protection on migration in lagging regions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 73-86.
    24. Muendler, Marc-Andreas, 2017. "Trade, technology, and prosperity: An account of evidence from a labor-market perspective," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2017-15, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    25. Yannis M. Ioannides, 2015. "A DMP Model of Intercity Trade," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0808, Department of Economics, Tufts University.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J48 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Particular Labor Markets; Public Policy
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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