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Free vs. Controlled Migration: Bilateral Country Study

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  • Assaf Razin
  • Jackline Wahba

Abstract

This paper tests the differential effects of the generosity of the welfare state under free migration and under policy-controlled migration, distinguishing between source developing and developed countries. We utilize free-movement within the EU to examine the free migration regime and compare that to immigration into the EU from two other groups, developed and developing source countries, to capture immigration-restricted regimes. We standardize cross-country education quality differences by using the Hanushek-Woessmann (2009) cognitive skills measure. We find strong support for the "Magnet Hypothesis" under the free-migration regime, and the "Fiscal Burden Hypothesis" under the immigration- restricted regime even after controlling for differences in returns to skills in source and host countries. We also find a significant differences across host-country policy regimes in the effects of returns to skills on the skill mix of immigrants.

Suggested Citation

  • Assaf Razin & Jackline Wahba, 2011. "Free vs. Controlled Migration: Bilateral Country Study," NBER Working Papers 16831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16831
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    1. Eric Hanushek & Ludger Woessmann, 2012. "Do better schools lead to more growth? Cognitive skills, economic outcomes, and causation," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 267-321, December.
    2. Timothy Miller & Ronald Lee, 2000. "Immigration, Social Security, and Broader Fiscal Impacts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 350-354, May.
    3. Razin, Assaf & Sadka, Efraim, 2000. " Unskilled Migration: A Burden or a Boon for the Welfare State?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 102(3), pages 463-479, June.
    4. Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 1999. "An empirical analysis of the welfare magnet debate using the NLSY," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 12(3), pages 391-409.
    5. Nicolas Péridy, 2006. "The European Union and its new neighbors: an estimation of migration potentials," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 6(2), pages 1-11.
    6. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2006:i:2:p:1-11 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Assaf Razin & Efraim Sadka, 2004. "Welfare Migration: Is the Net Fiscal Burden a Good Measure of its Economic Impact on the Welfare of the Native-Born Population?," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 50(4), pages 709-716.
    8. Breyer, Friedrich & Craig, Ben, 1997. "Voting on social security: Evidence from OECD countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 705-724, December.
    9. Edward M. Gramlich & Deborah S. Laren, 1984. "Migration and Income Redistribution Responsibilities," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 19(4), pages 489-511.
    10. Blank, Rebecca M., 1988. "The effect of welfare and wage levels on the location decisions of female-headed households," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 186-211, September.
    11. Razin, Assaf & Sadka, Efraim & Swagel, Phillip, 1998. "Tax Burden and Migration," Economics Series 59, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    12. De Giorgi, Giacomo & Pellizzari, Michele, 2009. "Welfare migration in Europe," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 353-363, August.
    13. Enchautegui, Maria E, 1997. "Welfare Payments and Other Economic Determinants of Female Migration," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages 529-554, July.
    14. J. R. Walker, "undated". "Migration amoung low-income households: Helping the witch doctors reach consensus," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1031-94, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Arnaud Chevalier & Benjamin Elsner & Andreas Lichter & Nico Pestel, 2018. "Immigrant Voters, Taxation and the Size of the Welfare State," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 994, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    2. repec:kap:jecgro:v:23:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s10887-017-9153-z is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Bredtmann, Julia & Nowotny, Klaus & Otten, Sebastian, 2017. "Linguistic distance, networks and migrants' regional location choice," Ruhr Economic Papers 725, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    4. Stark, Oded & Byra, Lukasz, 2019. "Can a deportation policy backfire?," University of Tuebingen Working Papers in Economics and Finance 122, University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences.
    5. Takuya Matsuyama & Tomomi Miyazaki, 2017. "The Effects of Immigration on Social Expenditure in Host Countries," Discussion Papers 1708, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
    6. Julia Bredtmann & Klaus Nowotny & Sebastian Otten, 2017. "Linguistic Distance, Networks and Migrants’ Regional Location Choice," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1712, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    7. Alesina, Alberto & Murard, Elie & Rapoport, Hillel, 2019. "Immigration and Preferences for Redistribution in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 12130, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Casarico, Alessandra & Facchini, Giovanni & Frattini, Tommaso, 2018. "What drives the legalization of immigrants? Evidence from IRCA," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 258-273.
    9. repec:eee:hapoch:v1_119 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:eee:jeborg:v:163:y:2019:i:c:p:239-261 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Huber, Peter & Oberdabernig, Doris A., 2016. "The impact of welfare benefits on natives' and immigrants' attitudes toward immigration," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 53-78.
    12. Razin, Assaf & Sadka, Efraim, 2018. "The Welfare State besides Globalization Forces," CEPR Discussion Papers 13106, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Razin, Assaf & Sadka, Efraim, 2018. "Financial Globalization and the Welfare State," CEPR Discussion Papers 12998, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Marco Delogu & Frédéric Docquier & Joël Machado, 2018. "Globalizing labor and the world economy: the role of human capital," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 223-258, June.
    15. Zaiceva, A. & Zimmermann, K.F., 2016. "Migration and the Demographic Shift," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, in: Piggott, John & Woodland, Alan (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 119-177, Elsevier.
    16. Góra, Marek & Ruzik-Sierdzińska, Anna, 2018. "Migration with Pension Reform Expectations," IZA Discussion Papers 11960, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General
    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • H10 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - General

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