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Free vs. Controlled Migration: Bilateral Country Study

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  • Assaf Razin
  • Jackline Wahba

Abstract

This paper tests the differential effects of the generosity of the welfare state under free migration and under policy-controlled migration, distinguishing between source developing and developed countries. We utilize free-movement within the EU to examine the free migration regime and compare that to immigration into the EU from two other groups, developed and developing source countries, to capture immigration-restricted regimes. We standardize cross-country education quality differences by using the Hanushek-Woessmann (2009) cognitive skills measure. We find strong support for the "Magnet Hypothesis" under the free-migration regime, and the "Fiscal Burden Hypothesis" under the immigration- restricted regime even after controlling for differences in returns to skills in source and host countries. We also find a significant differences across host-country policy regimes in the effects of returns to skills on the skill mix of immigrants.

Suggested Citation

  • Assaf Razin & Jackline Wahba, 2011. "Free vs. Controlled Migration: Bilateral Country Study," NBER Working Papers 16831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16831
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    Cited by:

    1. Razin, Assaf & Schwemmer, Alexander, 2020. "Ageing-Driven Migration and Redistribution: Comparing Policy Regimes," CEPR Discussion Papers 14574, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Oded Stark & Lukasz Byra, 2020. "Can a deportation policy backfire?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 183(1), pages 29-41, April.
    3. Takuya Matsuyama & Tomomi Miyazaki, 2017. "The Effects of Immigration on Social Expenditure in Host Countries," Discussion Papers 1708, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
    4. Julia Bredtmann & Klaus Nowotny & Sebastian Otten, 2017. "Linguistic Distance, Networks and Migrants’ Regional Location Choice," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1712, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    5. Corneo, Giacomo G. & Neidhöfer, Guido, 2019. "Income redistribution and self-selection of immigrants," ZEW Discussion Papers 19-019, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    6. Alesina, Alberto & Murard, Elie & Rapoport, Hillel, 2019. "Immigration and Preferences for Redistribution in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 12130, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Casarico, Alessandra & Facchini, Giovanni & Frattini, Tommaso, 2018. "What drives the legalization of immigrants? Evidence from IRCA," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 258-273.
    8. Zaiceva, A. & Zimmermann, K.F., 2016. "Migration and the Demographic Shift," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, in: Piggott, John & Woodland, Alan (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 0, pages 119-177, Elsevier.
    9. Gerber, Anke & Nicklisch, Andreas & Voigt, Stefan, 2019. "The role of ignorance in the emergence of redistribution," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 239-261.
    10. Huber, Peter & Oberdabernig, Doris A., 2016. "The impact of welfare benefits on natives' and immigrants' attitudes toward immigration," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 53-78.
    11. Marco Delogu & Frédéric Docquier & Joël Machado, 2018. "Globalizing labor and the world economy: the role of human capital," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 23(2), pages 223-258, June.
    12. Michel Beine & Luisito Bertinelli & Rana Comertpay & Anastasia Litina & Jean-Francois Maystadt, 2020. "The Gravity Model of Forced Displacement Using Mobile Phone Data," Working Papers 293574571, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    13. Arnaud Chevalier & Benjamin Elsner & Andreas Lichter & Nico Pestel, 2018. "Immigrant Voters, Taxation and the Size of the Welfare State," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 994, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    14. Marek Góra & Anna Ruzik-Sierdzińska, 2020. "Migration with pension reform expectations," Public Sector Economics, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 44(2), pages 203-219.
    15. Bredtmann, Julia & Nowotny, Klaus & Otten, Sebastian, 2020. "Linguistic distance, networks and migrants’ regional location choice," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    16. Bettin, Giulia & Sacchi, Agnese, 2020. "Health spending in Italy: The impact of immigrants," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    17. Anthony Edo & Lionel Ragot & Hillel Rapoport & Sulin Sardoschau & Andreas Steinmayr & Arthur Sweetman, 2020. "An introduction to the economics of immigration in OECD countries," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(4), pages 1365-1403, November.
    18. Razin, Assaf & Sadka, Efraim, 2018. "The Welfare State besides Globalization Forces," CEPR Discussion Papers 13106, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    19. Razin, Assaf & Sadka, Efraim, 2018. "Financial Globalization and the Welfare State," CEPR Discussion Papers 12998, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Tobias Müller & Silvio Hong Tiing Tai, 2020. "Individual attitudes towards migration: A re‐examination of the evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(4), pages 1663-1702, November.
    21. Góra, Marek & Ruzik-Sierdzińska, Anna, 2018. "Migration with Pension Reform Expectations," IZA Discussion Papers 11960, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General
    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • H10 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - General

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