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Labor Outflows and Labor Inflows in Puerto Rico

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  • George J. Borjas

Abstract

Although a sizable fraction of the Puerto Rican-born population moved to the United States, the island also received large inflows of persons born outside Puerto Rico. Hence Puerto Rico provides a unique setting for examining how labor inflows and outflows coexist, and measuring the mirror-image wage impact of these flows. The study yields two findings. First, the skills of the out-migrants differ from those of the in-migrants. Puerto Rico attracts high-skill in-migrants and exports low-skill workers. Second, the two flows have opposing effects on wages: in-migrants lower the wage of competing workers and out-migrants increase the wage.

Suggested Citation

  • George J. Borjas, 2007. "Labor Outflows and Labor Inflows in Puerto Rico," NBER Working Papers 13669, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13669
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    Cited by:

    1. Steinhardt Max Friedrich, 2011. "The Wage Impact of Immigration in Germany - New Evidence for Skill Groups and Occupations," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-35, June.
    2. David Card & Giovanni Peri, 2016. "Immigration Economics by George J. Borjas: A Review Essay," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 54(4), pages 1333-1349, December.
    3. Sotomayor, Orlando, 2009. "Puerto Rican Migration Flows and the Theory of Migrant Self-Selection," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 726-738, March.
    4. Vahan Sargsyan, 2017. "Treatment-Related Naturalization Premiums in Two European Countries: Evaluation and Comparison," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp585, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    5. Matthias Parey & Jens Ruhose & Fabian Waldinger & Nicolai Netz, 2017. "The Selection of High-Skilled Emigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 99(5), pages 776-792, December.
    6. Prachi Mishra, 2014. "Emigration and wages in source countries: a survey of the empirical literature," Chapters,in: International Handbook on Migration and Economic Development, chapter 9, pages 241-266 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:4:p:678-702 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Alexander Patt & Jens Ruhose & Simon Wiederhold & Miguel Flores, 2017. "International Emigrant Selection on Occupational Skills," CESifo Working Paper Series 6527, CESifo Group Munich.
    9. Grogger, Jeffrey & Hanson, Gordon H., 2011. "Income maximization and the selection and sorting of international migrants," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 42-57, May.
    10. Benjamin Elsner, 2015. "Does emigration increase the wages of non-emigrants in sending countries?," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 208-208, November.
    11. Michael A. Clemens & Lant Pritchett, 2008. "Income per Natural: Measuring Development for People Rather Than Places," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 34(3), pages 395-434.
    12. repec:bla:intmig:v:51:y:2017:i:2:p:416-451 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Chi, Miao & Drewianka, Scott, 2014. "How much is a green card worth? Evidence from Mexican men who marry women born in the U.S," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 103-116.
    14. Hatton, Timothy J., 2014. "The economics of international migration: A short history of the debate," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 43-50.
    15. Besart Avdiu, 2018. "The Effect of Attitudes toward Migrants on Migrant Skill Composition," LIS Working papers 718, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    16. Gindling, T.H., 2009. "South-South Migration: The Impact of Nicaraguan Immigrants on Earnings, Inequality and Poverty in Costa Rica," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 116-126, January.
    17. Besart Avdiu, 2018. "The Effect of Attitudes toward Migrants on Migrant Skill Composition," CESifo Working Paper Series 6919, CESifo Group Munich.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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