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Labor Outflows and Labor Inflows in Puerto Rico

  • George J. Borjas

Although a sizable fraction of the Puerto Rican–born population moved to the United States, the island also received large inflows of persons born outside Puerto Rico. Hence Puerto Rico provides a unique setting for examining how labor inflows and outflows coexist and measuring the mirror†image wage impact of these flows. The study yields two findings. First, the skills of the out†migrants differ from those of the in†migrants. Puerto Rico attracts high†skill in†migrants and exports low†skill workers. Second, the two flows have opposing effects on wages: in†migrants lower the wage of competing workers, and out†migrants increase the wage.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/527521
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Article provided by University of Chicago Press in its journal Journal of Human Capital.

Volume (Year): 2 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 32-68

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Handle: RePEc:ucp:jhucap:v:2:i:1:y:2008:p:32-68
DOI: 10.1086/527521
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/JHC/

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  1. Maria Enchautegui & Richard B. Freeman, 2005. "Why Don't More Puerto Rican Men Work? The Rich Uncle (Sam) Hypothesis," NBER Working Papers 11751, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Rachel M. Friedberg & Jennifer Hunt, 1995. "The Impact of Immigrants on Host Country Wages, Employment and Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 23-44, Spring.
  3. George J. Borjas, 1987. "Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 2248, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. George J. Borjas, 2005. "Native Internal Migration and the Labor Market Impact of Immigration," NBER Working Papers 11610, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Enchautegui, Maria E, 1993. "The Value of U.S. Labor Market Experience in the Home Country: The Case of Puerto Rican Return Migrants," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(1), pages 169-91, October.
  6. David Card, 2005. "Is the New Immigration Really so Bad?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(507), pages F300-F323, November.
  7. David Card & Thomas Lemieux, 2000. "Can Falling Supply Explain the Rising Return to College for Younger Men? A Cohort-Based Analysis," NBER Working Papers 7655, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Daniel Chiquiar & Gordon H. Hanson, 2005. "International Migration, Self-Selection, and the Distribution of Wages: Evidence from Mexico and the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(2), pages 239-281, April.
  9. George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1335-1374.
  10. Steven J. Davis & Luis Rivera-Batiz, 2005. "The Climate for Business Development and Employment Growth in Puerto Rico," NBER Working Papers 11679, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Abdurrahman Aydemir & George J. Borjas, 2007. "Cross-Country Variation in the Impact of International Migration: Canada, Mexico, and the United States," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 5(4), pages 663-708, 06.
  12. Pablo Ibarraran & Darren Lubotsky, 2007. "Mexican Immigration and Self-Selection: New Evidence from the 2000 Mexican Census," NBER Chapters, in: Mexican Immigration to the United States, pages 159-192 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Mishra, Prachi, 2007. "Emigration and wages in source countries: Evidence from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 180-199, January.
  14. Finis Welch, 1979. "Effects of Cohort Size on Earnings: The Baby Boom Babies' Financial Bust," UCLA Economics Working Papers 146, UCLA Department of Economics.
  15. David Card, 1997. "Immigrant Inflows, Native Outflows, and the Local Labor Market Impacts of Higher Immigration," NBER Working Papers 5927, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Welch, Finis, 1979. "Effects of Cohort Size on Earnings: The Baby Boom Babies' Financial Bust," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages S65-97, October.
  17. George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 9755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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