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Endogenous Financial Openness: Efficiency and Political Economy Considerations

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  • Joshua Aizenman
  • Ilan Noy

Abstract

This paper studies the endogenous determination of financial openness. We outline a framework where financial openness is endogenously determined by the authority's choice of financial repression as a taxation device, and where the private sector determines endogenously the magnitude of capital flight. The optimal financial repression is shown to depend on the openness of the economy to international trade, the efficiency of the tax system (which in turn may be affected by political economy considerations), and on political polarization and the degree of opportunism. Similar predictions are obtained in a model where authorities pursue an opportunistic policy representing the interest of a narrow pressure group that engages in capital flight due to political uncertainty. We confirm the predictions of the models, showing that de-facto financial openness [measured by (gross private capital inflows + outflows)/GDP] depends positively on lagged trade openness, and GDP/Capita. For developing countries, we find that a one standard deviation increase in commercial openness is associated with a 9.5 percent increase in de-facto financial openness (% of GDP), a one standard deviation increase in the democratization index reduces financial openness by 3.5%, and a one standard deviation increase in corruption is associated with a 3% reduction of financial openness. Similar negative dependence applies for measures of political competition. The impact of a budget surplus on financial openness is negative for developing countries, but positive for the OECD. The theoretical and empirical analysis leads us to conclude that a more openly competitive, free and inclusive political system will lead to lower levels of de-facto financial openness after controlling for incomes, macroeconomic policy (inflation and budget surpluses), interest rates and commercial openness.

Suggested Citation

  • Joshua Aizenman & Ilan Noy, 2003. "Endogenous Financial Openness: Efficiency and Political Economy Considerations," NBER Working Papers 10144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:10144
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Noy, Ilan & Vu, Tam B., 2007. "Capital account liberalization and foreign direct investment," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 175-194, August.
    2. Aizenman, Joshua, 2008. "On the hidden links between financial and trade opening," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 372-386, April.
    3. Joshua Aizenman & Ilan Noy, 2009. "Endogenous Financial and Trade Openness," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(2), pages 175-189, May.
    4. Aizenman, Joshua & Pinto, Brian & Radziwill, Artur, 2007. "Sources for financing domestic capital - Is foreign saving a viable option for developing countries?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 682-702, September.
    5. Joshua Aizenman, 2004. "Financial Opening and Development: Evidence and Policy Controversies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 65-70, May.
    6. repec:rss:jnljbs:v2i3p3 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Dong, Baomin & Gu, Xinhua & Song, Huasheng, 2017. "Capital market liberalization: Optimal tradeoff and bargaining delay," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 78-88.
    8. Benjamin E. Diokno, 2007. "Economic and Fiscal Policy Determinants of Public Deficits: The Philippine Case," UP School of Economics Discussion Papers 200702, University of the Philippines School of Economics.
    9. Ilan Noy, 2004. "Do IMF Bailouts Result in Moral Hazard? An Events-Study Approach," Working Papers 200402, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    10. Yongfu Huang & Jonathan Temple, 2005. "Does external trade promote financial development?," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 05/575, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
    11. Chinn, Menzie D. & Ito, Hiro, 2006. "What matters for financial development? Capital controls, institutions, and interactions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 163-192, October.
    12. Benjamin E. Diokno, 2010. "Philippine fiscal behavior in recent history," Philippine Review of Economics, University of the Philippines School of Economics and Philippine Economic Society, vol. 47(1), pages 39-87, June.
    13. Joseph P. Joyce & Ilan Noy, 2008. "The IMF and the Liberalization of Capital Flows," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 413-430, August.
    14. Hauner, David, 2008. "Credit to government and banking sector performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1499-1507, August.
    15. Benjamin E. Diokno, 2008. "The Philippines : Fiscal Behavior In Recent History," UP School of Economics Discussion Papers 200804, University of the Philippines School of Economics.
    16. Can ERBIL & Durmus OZDEMIR, "undated". "Does Financial Liberalization Trigger Long-Run Economic Growth?," EcoMod2008 23800033, EcoMod.
    17. David Hauner, 2006. "Fiscal Policy and Financial Development," IMF Working Papers 06/26, International Monetary Fund.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements

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