Endogenous Financial Openness: Efficiency and Political Economy Considerations
This paper studies the endogenous determination of financial openness. We outline a framework where financial openness is endogenously determined by the authority's choice of financial repression as a taxation device, and where the private sector determines endogenously the magnitude of capital flight. The optimal financial repression is shown to depend on the openness of the economy to international trade, the efficiency of the tax system (which in turn may be affected by political economy considerations), and on political polarization and the degree of opportunism. Similar predictions are obtained in a model where authorities pursue an opportunistic policy representing the interest of a narrow pressure group that engages in capital flight due to political uncertainty. We confirm the predictions of the models, showing that de-facto financial openness [measured by (gross private capital inflows + outflows)/GDP] depends positively on lagged trade openness, and GDP/Capita. For developing countries, we find that a one standard deviation increase in commercial openness is associated with a 9.5 percent increase in de-facto financial openness (% of GDP), a one standard deviation increase in the democratization index reduces financial openness by 3.5%, and a one standard deviation increase in corruption is associated with a 3% reduction of financial openness. Similar negative dependence applies for measures of political competition. The impact of a budget surplus on financial openness is negative for developing countries, but positive for the OECD. The theoretical and empirical analysis leads us to conclude that a more openly competitive, free and inclusive political system will lead to lower levels of de-facto financial openness after controlling for incomes, macroeconomic policy (inflation and budget surpluses), interest rates and commercial openness.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as Joshua Aizenman & Ilan Noy, 2009. "Endogenous Financial and Trade Openness," Review of Development Economics, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 13(2), pages 175-189, 05.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Alberto Alesina & Guido Tabellini, 1988.
"External Debt, Capital Flight and Political Risk,"
NBER Working Papers
2610, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Alberto Alesina & Guido Tabellini, 1988. "External Debt, Capital Flight and Political Risk," UCLA Economics Working Papers 538, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Tabellini, Guido & Alesina, Alberto, 1989. "External Debt, Capital Flight and Political Risk," Scholarly Articles 4553019, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Alesina, Alberto F & Tabellini, Guido, 1988. "External Debt, Capital Flight and Political Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 253, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Henry, Peter B., 2003.
"Capital Account Liberalization, The Cost of Capital, and Economic Growth,"
1778, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
- Peter Blair Henry, 2003. "Capital-Account Liberalization, the Cost of Capital, and Economic Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 91-96, May.
- Peter Blair Henry, 2003. "Capital Account Liberalization, The Cost of Capital, and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 9488, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Barry Eichengreen & Carlos Arteta, 2001.
"Banking Crises in Emerging Markets: Presumptions and Evidence,"
- Barry Eichengreen and Carlos Arteta., 2000. "Banking Crises in Emerging Markets: Presumptions and Evidence," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C00-115, University of California at Berkeley.
- Eichengreen, Barry & Arteta, Carlos, 2000. "Banking Crises in Emerging Markets: Presumptions and Evidence," Center for International and Development Economics Research, Working Paper Series qt3pk9t1h2, Center for International and Development Economics Research, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Axel Dreher & Lars-H.R. Siemers, 2003.
"The Intriguing Nexus Between Corruption and Capital Account Restrictions,"
Development and Comp Systems
0306004, EconWPA, revised 07 Apr 2004.
- Dreher, Axel & Siemers, Lars-H. R., 2005. "The Intriguing Nexus between Corruption and Capital Account Restrictions," RWI Discussion Papers 35, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI).
- Axel Dreher & Lars Siemers, 2005. "The Intriguing Nexus between Corruption and Capital Account Restrictions," KOF Working papers 05-113, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
- Michael P. Dooley & Kenneth M. Kletzer, 1994.
"Capital flight, external debt, and domestic policies,"
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 29-37.
- Michael P. Dooley & Kenneth M. Kletzer, 1994. "Capital Flight, External Debt and Domestic Policies," NBER Working Papers 4793, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- M. Ayhan Kose & Kenneth Rogoff & Eswar Prasad & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries: Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Occasional Papers 220, International Monetary Fund.
- Aizenman, Joshua, 2008.
"On the hidden links between financial and trade opening,"
Journal of International Money and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 372-386, April.
- Joshua Aizenman, 2003. "On the Hidden Links Between Financial and Trade Opening," NBER Working Papers 9906, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lane, Philip & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, . "External Wealth of Nations," Instructional Stata datasets for econometrics extwealth, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Alex Cukierman & Sebastian Edwards & Guido Tabellini, 1989.
"Seigniorage and Political Instability,"
NBER Working Papers
3199, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Renu Kohli & Kenneth Kletzer, 2001. "Financial Repression and Exchange Rate Management in Developing Countries; Theory and Empirical Evidence for India," IMF Working Papers 01/103, International Monetary Fund.
- Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian Lundblad, 2004.
"Does Financial Liberalization Spur Growth?,"
Working Paper Research
53, National Bank of Belgium.
- Fischer, S. & Cooper, R.N. & Dornbusch, R. & Garber, P.M. & Massad, C. & Polak, J.J. & Rodrik, D. & Tarapore, S.S., 1998. "Should the IMF Pursue Capital-Account Convertibility?," Princeton Essays in International Economics 207, International Economics Section, Departement of Economics Princeton University,.
- George A. Akerlof & Paul M. Romer, 1993. "Looting: The Economic Underworld of Bankruptcy for Profit," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 24(2), pages 1-74.
- Michael P. Dooley, 1988. "Capital Flight: A Response to Differences in Financial Risks," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(3), pages 422-436, September.
- Michael Gavin & Roberto Perotti, 1997. "Fiscal Policy in Latin America," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1997, Volume 12, pages 11-72 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Michael Gavin & Ricardo Hausmann & Roberto Perotti & Ernesto Talvi, 1996.
"Managing Fiscal Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: Volatility, Procyclicality, and Limited Creditworthiness,"
IDB Publications (Working Papers)
6797, Inter-American Development Bank.
- Michael Gavin & Ricardo Hausmann & Roberto Perotti & Ernesto Talvi, 1996. "Managing Fiscal Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: Volatility, Procyclicality, and Limited Creditworthiness," Research Department Publications 4032, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Ernesto Talvi & Carlos A. Vegh, 2000. "Tax Base Variability and Procyclical Fiscal Policy," NBER Working Papers 7499, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Giovannini, Alberto & de Melo, Martha, 1993. "Government Revenue from Financial Repression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(4), pages 953-63, September.
- Michael M Hutchison & Ilan Noy, 2002. "Output Costs of Currency and Balance of Payments Crises in Emerging Markets," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(2-3), pages 27-44, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:10144. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.