Economic and Fiscal Policy Determinants of Public Deficits: The Philippine Case
The large and unsustainable deficits of the early 1980s have reemerged in recent years. This paper aims to answer two questions: What has caused the poor fiscal performance of the Philippines in recent years? Is it the result of unfortunate events, macroeconomic shocks or misdirected fiscal policy? Using time series data and 2SLS estimation method, two measures of public deficits -- the national government account balance (NGAB) and the consolidated public sector financial position (CPSFP) -- were regressed against some macroeconomic and fiscal variables. An important result of the empirical work is that the broader measure, CPSFP, turned out to be the more useful and meaningful one both from the theoretical and policy standpoints. The statistically significant determinants of CPFSP are the following: economic growth rate, inflation, domestic liquidity, capital expenditure, intergovernmental fiscal transfer, and tax effort. Using the narrow deficit concept of NGAB as dependent variable, economic rate and intergovernmental fiscal transfer turned out to be statistically insignificant. Tax effort, defined as taxes as percent of GDP, is the most robust determinant of fiscal deficits, with higher tax effort associated with larger fiscal surplus or lower deficit. But tax effort was largely determined by two episodes to tax changes during the period under study. The contribution of the 1986 tax reform to tax effort is positive and highly significant while that of the 1997 tax reform is negatively and statistically significant. Looking forward, any package of reforms which aim to achieve fiscal sustainability in the Philippines should include a strong component for improving revenue effort. Such component should not only aim to correct existing weaknesses in the current tax system (such as, for example, the narrow tax base owing to the proliferation of fiscal incentives laws) but also improve tax administration.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published as UPSE Discussion Paper No. 2007-02, March 2007|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Diliman, Quezon City 1101|
Web page: http://www.econ.upd.edu.ph/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Denizer, Cevdet & Desai, Raj M. & Gueorguiev, Nikolay, 1998. "The political economy of financial repression in transition economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2030, The World Bank.
- Emmanuel Saez, 1999.
"The Effect of Marginal Tax Rates on Income: A Panel Study of 'Bracket Creep',"
NBER Working Papers
7367, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Saez, Emmanuel, 2003. "The effect of marginal tax rates on income: a panel study of 'bracket creep'," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(5-6), pages 1231-1258, May.
- Nouriel Roubini & Jeffrey Sachs, 1988. "Political and Economic Determinants of Budget Deficits in the IndustrialDemocracies," NBER Working Papers 2682, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joshua Aizenman & Ilan Noy, 2003. "Endogenous Financial Openness: Efficiency and Political Economy Considerations," NBER Working Papers 10144, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- World Bank, 2005. "Philippines : Meeting the Infrastructure Challenges," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8459, The World Bank.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1996. "Public Sector Deficits and Macroeconomic Stability in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 5407, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:phs:dpaper:200702. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Reuben T. Campos)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.