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Racial Differences In Availability Of Fringe Benefits As An Explanation For The Unexplained Blackwhite Wage Gap For Males In Us

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  • Kristjan-Olari Leping

Abstract

The US black-white wage gap is an issue that has attracted thorough investigation, but so far the corresponding gap for fringe benefits has not received sufficient attention. Although ethnic differences in fringe benefits could affect wage differences, previous analysis of ethnic wage gaps in the vast majority of cases has not taken fringe benefits into account. In order to fill that gap in the existing literature, this article estimates the black-white gap for both wages and fringe benefits on the basis of US data. Data from the 2004 section of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 has been used in this analysis. Our results indicate that when controlling for various individual and job characteristics, there remains a wage gap in favour of whites, and for several fringe benefits, there is an unexplained gap in favour of blacks. This result means that the ethnic wage gap overestimates the ethnic compensation gap. We also argue that fringe benefits are used to compensate blacks for their lower wages.

Suggested Citation

  • Kristjan-Olari Leping, 2007. "Racial Differences In Availability Of Fringe Benefits As An Explanation For The Unexplained Blackwhite Wage Gap For Males In Us," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 57, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
  • Handle: RePEc:mtk:febawb:57
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. David Collard & Michael Godwin & John Hudson, 2005. "The Provision of Company Benefits in the UK," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(7-8), pages 1397-1421.
    2. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1992. "School Quality and Black-White Relative Earnings: A Direct Assessment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 151-200.
    3. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162.
    4. Kahneman, Daniel & Knetsch, Jack L & Thaler, Richard H, 1990. "Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(6), pages 1325-1348, December.
    5. Jayachandran N. Variyam & David S. Kraybill, 1998. "Fringe Benefits Provision by Rural Small Businesses," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(2), pages 360-368.
    6. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    7. William Rodgers & William Spriggs, 1996. "What does the AFQT really measure: Race, wages, schooling and the AFQT score," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 24(4), pages 13-46, June.
    8. Oettinger, Gerald S, 1996. "Statistical Discrimination and the Early Career Evolution of the Black-White Wage Gap," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(1), pages 52-78, January.
    9. Greg J. Duncan, 1976. "Earnings Functions and Nonpecuniary Benefits," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 11(4), pages 462-483.
    10. Richard B. Freeman, 1981. "The Effect of Unionism on Fringe Benefits," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 34(4), pages 489-509, July.
    11. Dan Black & Amelia Haviland & Seth Sanders & Lowell Taylor, 2006. "Why Do Minority Men Earn Less? A Study of Wage Differentials among the Highly Educated," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(2), pages 300-313, May.
    12. Brown, Charles & Medoff, James, 1989. "The Employer Size-Wage Effect," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1027-1059, October.
    13. Brooks Pierce, 2001. "Compensation Inequality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1493-1525.
    14. John W. Budd, 2004. "Non-Wage Forms of Compensation," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 25(4), pages 597-622, October.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    ethnicity; wages; fringe benefits;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods

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