IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/mol/ecsdps/esdp07032.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cross-Border M&As in the Financial Sector. Is Banking Different from Insurance?

Author

Listed:
  • Pozzolo, Alberto Franco

    ()

  • Focarelli, Dario

    ()

Abstract

This paper investigates what factors might help explain the internationalization strategy of banks and insurance companies, by comparing the determinants of cross-border M&As in the two sectors in a unified framework. The empirical analysis shows that between 1990 and 2003 the internationalization of banks and insurance companies followed similar patterns. Distance and economic and cultural integration are important determinants for both the banks’ and the insurance companies’ expansion abroad. Comparative advantage also has a prominent role, the more so for banks. The evidence is less supportive of the view that cross-border M&As are more frequent between similar countries, as predicted by the new trade theory. Finally, and most interestingly, we find indirect evidence consistent with the hypothesis that implicit barriers to foreign entry are more important in explaining the behavior of banks than that of insurance companies.

Suggested Citation

  • Pozzolo, Alberto Franco & Focarelli, Dario, 2007. "Cross-Border M&As in the Financial Sector. Is Banking Different from Insurance?," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp07032, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.
  • Handle: RePEc:mol:ecsdps:esdp07032
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://web.unimol.it/progetti/repec/mol/ecsdps/ESDP07032.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Focarelli, Dario & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2001. "The patterns of cross-border bank mergers and shareholdings in OECD countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2305-2337, December.
    2. Elena Carletti & Philipp Hartmann, 2003. "Competition and stability: what's special about banking?," Chapters,in: Monetary History, Exchange Rates and Financial Markets, chapter 8 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Johnson, Denise, 1990. "The determinants of US banking activity abroad," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 123-137, June.
    4. Brealey, R. A. & Kaplanis, E. C., 1996. "The determination of foreign banking location," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 577-597, August.
    5. Blonigen, Bruce A, 1997. "Firm-Specific Assets and the Link between Exchange Rates and Foreign Direct Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(3), pages 447-465, June.
    6. Goldberg, Lawrence G & Saunders, Anthony, 1980. "The Causes of U.S. Bank Expansion Overseas: The Case of Great Britain," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 12(4), pages 630-643, November.
    7. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, January.
    8. Berger, Allen N. & Dai, Qinglei & Ongena, Steven & Smith, David C., 2003. "To what extent will the banking industry be globalized? A study of bank nationality and reach in 20 European nations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 383-415, March.
    9. Xavier Vives, 2001. "Restructuring Financial Regulation in the European Monetary Union," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 19(1), pages 57-82, February.
    10. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1998. "Multinational firms and the new trade theory," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 183-203, December.
    11. James R. Markusen, 1995. "The Boundaries of Multinational Enterprises and the Theory of International Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 169-189, Spring.
    12. Calzolari, Giacomo & Loranth, Gyongyi, 2011. "Regulation of multinational banks: A theoretical inquiry," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 178-198, April.
    13. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    14. Stewart R Miller & Arvind Parkhe, 1998. "Patterns in the Expansion of U.S. Banks' Foreign Operations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(2), pages 359-388, June.
    15. Dario Focarelli & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, 2005. "Where Do Banks Expand Abroad? An Empirical Analysis," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(6), pages 2435-2464, November.
    16. Moshirian, Fariborz, 1997. "Foreign direct investment in insurance services in the United States," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 159-173, June.
    17. Beenstock, Michael & Dickinson, Gerry & Khajuria, Sajay, 1986. "The determination of life premiums: An international cross-section analysis 1970-1981," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 261-270, October.
    18. Yamori, Nobuyoshi, 1998. "A note on the location choice of multinational banks: The case of Japanese financial institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 109-120, January.
    19. Ball, Clifford A. & Tschoegl, Adrian E., 1982. "The Decision to Establish a Foreign Bank Branch or Subsidiary: An Application of Binary Classification Procedures," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(03), pages 411-424, September.
    20. Li, Donghui & Moshirian, Fariborz, 2004. "International investment in insurance services in the US," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 249-260, July.
    21. Buch, Claudia M. & DeLong, Gayle, 2004. "Cross-border bank mergers: What lures the rare animal?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2077-2102, September.
    22. Rafael Repullo, 2001. "A model of takeovers of foreign banks," Spanish Economic Review, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 1-21.
    23. Linda S. Goldberg, 2007. "Financial sector FDI and host countries: new and old lessons," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Mar, pages 1-17.
    24. Goldberg, Lawrence G & Saunders, Anthony, 1981. "The Growth of Organizational Forms of Foreign Banks in the U.S.: A Note," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 13(3), pages 365-374, August.
    25. Grosse, Robert & Goldberg, Lawrence G., 1991. "Foreign bank activity in the United States: An analysis by country of origin," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1093-1112, December.
    26. Barth, James R. & Caprio, Gerard & Levine, Ross, 2000. "Banking systems around the globe : do regulation and ownership affect the performance and stability?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2325, The World Bank.
    27. Berger, Allen N. & Buch, Claudia M. & DeLong, Gayle & DeYoung, Robert, 2004. "Exporting financial institutions management via foreign direct investment mergers and acquisitions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 333-366, April.
    28. Rossi, Stefano & Volpin, Paolo F., 2004. "Cross-country determinants of mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 277-304, November.
    29. ter Wengel, Jan, 1995. "International trade in banking services," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 47-64, February.
    30. Amihud, Yakov & DeLong, Gayle L. & Saunders, Anthony, 2002. "The effects of cross-border bank mergers on bank risk and value," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 857-877, November.
    31. Yu-Luen Ma & Nat Pope, 2003. "Determinants of International Insurers' Participation in Foreign Non-Life Markets," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 70(2), pages 235-248.
    32. Buch, Claudia M, 2003. " Information or Regulation: What Drives the International Activities of Commercial Banks?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(6), pages 851-869, December.
    33. Moshirian, Fariborz, 1999. "Sources of growth in international insurance services," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 177-194, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Clare, Andrew & Gulamhussen, Mohamed Azzim & Pinheiro, Carlos, 2013. "What factors cause foreign banks to stay in London?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 739-761.
    2. Tigran Poghosyan & Jakob de Haan, 2008. "Determinants of Cross-Border Bank Acquisitions in Transition Economies: A Latent Class Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 2372, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. de Haan, Leo & Kakes, Jan, 2010. "Are non-risk based capital requirements for insurance companies binding?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1618-1627, July.
    4. Han, I & Liang, Hsin-Yu & Chan, Kam C., 2016. "Locational concentration and institutional diversification: Evidence from foreign direct investments in the banking industry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 185-199.
    5. Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2008. "Bank Cross-Border Merger and Acquisitions (Causes, consequences and recent trends)," Economics & Statistics Discussion Papers esdp08048, University of Molise, Dept. EGSeI.
    6. Mohamed Azzim Gulamhussen & Carlos Pinheiro & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, 2010. "Do multinational banks create or destroy economic value?," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 36, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    7. Tigran Poghosyan & Jakob de Haan, 2010. "Determinants of cross-border bank acquisitions in transition economies," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 18(4), pages 671-696, October.
    8. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/c8dmi8nm4pdjkuc9g70aj72cl is not listed on IDEAS
    9. De Santis, Roberto A. & Coeurdacier, Nicolas & Aviat, Antonin, 2009. "Cross-Border Mergers and acquisitions: Financial and institutional forces," Working Paper Series 1018, European Central Bank.
    10. Nicolas Coeurdacier & Roberto A. De Santis & Antonin Aviat, 2009. "Cross-border mergers and acquisitions and European integration," Post-Print hal-01022660, HAL.
    11. Georgios Fotopoulos & Helen Louri, 2011. "On the geography of international banking: the role of third-country effects," Working Papers 125, Bank of Greece.
    12. Tsai, Hsiangping & Chang, Yuanchen & Hsiao, Pei-Hsin, 2011. "What drives foreign expansion of the top 100 multinational banks? The role of the credit reporting system," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 588-605, March.
    13. Gulamhussen, Mohamed Azzim & Hennart, Jean-François & Pinheiro, Carlos Manuel, 2016. "What drives cross-border M&As in commercial banking?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 6-18.
    14. Georgios Fotopoulos & Helen Louri, 2011. "On the Geography of International Banking: a case for spatial econometrics?," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1081, European Regional Science Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    international banking and insurance; foreign direct investment;

    JEL classification:

    • E30 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G22 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Insurance; Insurance Companies; Actuarial Studies
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mol:ecsdps:esdp07032. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Claudio Lupi). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/dsmolit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.