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Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Poverty in Ghana Using Fuzzy Sets Theory


  • Kojo Appiah-Kubi
  • Edward Amanning-Ampomah
  • Christian Ahortor


The paper studies the multidimensional aspects of poverty and living conditions in Ghana. The aim is to fill the vacuum that has been left by traditional uni-dimensional measures of deprivation based on poverty lines, exclusively estimated on the basis of monetary variables such as income or consumption expenditure. It combines monetary and non-monetary, and qualitative and quantitative indicators, including housing conditions, the possession of durable goods, equivalent disposable income, and equivalent expenditure, with a number of composite human welfare measures. The study employs the fuzzy-set theoretic framework to compare levels of deprivation in Ghana over time usig micro data from the last two rounds of the Ghana Living Standard Surveys (1991/1992 and 1998/1999). The estimation results of the membership functions, depicting the levels of deprivation for the various categories of deprivation indicators, show a composite deprivation degree of 0.2137 for the whole country in 1998/99 as compared to 0.2123 in 1991/92. This deprivation trend reveals that poverty levels hard scarcely changed in Ghana. In fact, it even rose slightly during the nineties, contrary to the uni-dimensional analytical GLSS 4 report of an overall broadly favourable trend in poverty in Ghana during the 1990s.

Suggested Citation

  • Kojo Appiah-Kubi & Edward Amanning-Ampomah & Christian Ahortor, 2007. "Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Poverty in Ghana Using Fuzzy Sets Theory," Working Papers PMMA 2007-21, PEP-PMMA.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:pmmacr:2007-21

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Gbetoton Nadege, Djossou & Gilles Quentin, Kane & Novignon, Jacob, 2017. "Is growth pro-poor in Benin? evidence using a multidimensional measure of poverty," MPRA Paper 77963, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Ghana; fuzzy set; multi-dimensional poverty; composite deprivation or poverty index;

    JEL classification:

    • A1 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics
    • A2 - General Economics and Teaching - - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics
    • A23 - General Economics and Teaching - - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics - - - Graduate
    • A29 - General Economics and Teaching - - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics - - - Other
    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • I39 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Other
    • R2 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis
    • R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General
    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand
    • R22 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Other Demand

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