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Strategic Reasoning in Hide-and-Seek Games: A Note

Author

Listed:
  • Timo Heinrich

    () (University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Economics, Germany)

  • Irenaeus Wolff

    () (Thurgau Institute of Economics at the University of Konstanz, Department of Economics, Germany)

Abstract

Aggregate behavior in two-player hide-and-seek games deviates systematically from the mixed-strategy equilibrium prediction of assigning all actions equal probabilities (Rubinstein and Tversky, 1993, Rubinstein et al., 1996, Rubinstein, 1999). As Crawford and Iriberri (2007) point out, this deviation can be explained by strategic level-k reasoning. Here we provide empirical evidence that, indeed, it is non-equilibrium beliefs that lead to the behaviour observed in the earlier studies: when a player's opponent is forced to play the equilibrium strategy, the player's choices are uniformly spread over the action space. At the same time, we find robust evidence of an unexpected framing effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Timo Heinrich & Irenaeus Wolff, 2012. "Strategic Reasoning in Hide-and-Seek Games: A Note," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2012-11, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  • Handle: RePEc:knz:dpteco:1211
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    File URL: http://www.uni-konstanz.de/FuF/wiwi/workingpaperseries/WP_Heinrich-Wolff_11-12.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Vincent P. Crawford & Miguel A. Costa-Gomes & Nagore Iriberri, 2010. "Strategic Thinking," Levine's Working Paper Archive 661465000000001148, David K. Levine.
    2. Vincent P. Crawford & Miguel A. Costa-Gomes, 2006. "Cognition and Behavior in Two-Person Guessing Games: An Experimental Study," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1737-1768.
    3. Vincent P. Crawford & Nagore Iriberri, 2007. "Fatal Attraction: Salience, Naïveté, and Sophistication in Experimental "Hide-and-Seek" Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1731-1750.
    4. Ho, Teck-Hua & Camerer, Colin & Weigelt, Keith, 1998. "Iterated Dominance and Iterated Best Response in Experimental "p-Beauty Contests."," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 947-969.
    5. Vincent P. Crawford & Nagore Iriberri, 2007. "Fatal Attraction: Salience, Naïveté, and Sophistication in Experimental "Hide-and-Seek" Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1731-1750.
    6. Nagel, Rosemarie, 1995. "Unraveling in Guessing Games: An Experimental Study," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1313-1326.
    7. Ho, Teck-Hua & Camerer, Colin & Weigelt, Keith, 1998. "Iterated Dominance and Iterated Best Response in Experimental "p-Beauty Contests."," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 947-969.
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    Cited by:

    1. Irenaeus Wolff, 2017. "Lucky Numbers in Simple Games," TWI Research Paper Series 107, Thurgauer Wirtschaftsinstitut, Universit�t Konstanz.
    2. Wolff, Irenaeus, 2016. "Elicited salience and salience-based level-k," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 134-137.
    3. Ireneaus Wolff, 2016. "Elicited Salience and Salience-Based Level-k," TWI Research Paper Series 103, Thurgauer Wirtschaftsinstitut, Universit�t Konstanz.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Salience; level-k reasoning; cognitive hierarchy; hide-and-seek game; framing effect;

    JEL classification:

    • C72 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Noncooperative Games
    • C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior

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