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Born Local: Two Avenues to Internationalization

  • Zoltan J. Acs

    (School of Public Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA; Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany)

  • Siri Terjesen

    ()

    (Brisbane Graduate School of Business, Queensland University of Technology; Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany)

Are firms born Global? Because knowledge spillovers that lead to new venture creation are geographically constrained we believe that firms are born local. It follows that the decision to create sustainable new ventures is independent from the decision to internationalize, even if that is the ultimate goal of the firm. We explore two avenues to internationalize new ventures, a direct path described in much of the extant literature and an intermediated one. New ventures face high entry barriers and intellectual property rights protection to internationalization, which are circumvented by intermediating activities using existing multinational enterprises as facilitators of internationalization. However, new ventures using the intermediated mode of internationalization face transaction costs and rent extraction from multinational enterprises. Therefore, sustainable new ventures face a strategic decision on how to internationalize.

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Paper provided by Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics in its series Jena Economic Research Papers with number 2007-022.

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Date of creation: 25 Jun 2007
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Handle: RePEc:jrp:jrpwrp:2007-022
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  1. Peter J Buckley, 2002. "Is the International Business Research Agenda Running Out of Steam?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 33(2), pages 365-373, June.
  2. Birkinshaw, Julian & Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Holm, Ulf & Terjesen, Siri, 2006. "Why Do Some Multinational Corporations Relocate Their Headquarters Overseas?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 54, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  3. Zoltan Acs & Pontus Braunerhjelm & David Audretsch & Bo Carlsson, 2009. "The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 15-30, January.
  4. George I Balabanis, 2000. "Factors Affecting Export Intermediaries' Service Offerings: The British Example," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(1), pages 83-99, March.
  5. Kuemmerle, Walter, 2002. "Home base and knowledge management in international ventures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 99-122, March.
  6. Anselin, Luc & Varga, Attila & Acs, Zoltan, 1997. "Local Geographic Spillovers between University Research and High Technology Innovations," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 422-448, November.
  7. Acs, Zoltan J. & Audretsch, David B., 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Technological Change," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 1(4), pages 149-195, November.
  8. Alex Rialp & Josep Rialp & David Urbano & Yancy Vaillant, 2005. "The Born-Global Phenomenon: A Comparative Case Study Research," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 133-171, June.
  9. Alan M Rugman & Alain Verbeke, 2003. "Extending the theory of the multinational enterprise: internalization and strategic management perspectives," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 34(2), pages 125-137, March.
  10. Keith D. Brouthers & Lance Eliot Brouthers, 2003. "Why Service and Manufacturing Entry Mode Choices Differ: The Influence of Transaction Cost Factors, Risk and Trust," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(5), pages 1179-1204, 07.
  11. Erkko Autio, 2005. "Creative tension: the significance of Ben Oviatt's and Patricia McDougall's article ‘toward a theory of international new ventures’," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(1), pages 9-19, January.
  12. Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1993. "Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(4), pages 625-645, December.
  13. Westhead, Paul & Wright, Mike & Ucbasaran, Deniz, 2001. "The internationalization of new and small firms: A resource-based view," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 333-358, July.
  14. Shaker A Zahra, 2005. "A theory of international new ventures: a decade of research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(1), pages 20-28, January.
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