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The Association between Immigration and Labor Market Outcomes in the United States

Author

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  • Basso, Gaetano

    (Bank of Italy)

  • Peri, Giovanni

    (University of California, Davis)

Abstract

In this paper we present important correlations between immigration and labor market outcomes of native workers in the US. We use data on local labor markets, states and regions from the Census and American Community Survey over the period 1970-2010. We first look at simple correlations and then we use regression analysis with an increasing number of controls for observed and unobserved factors. We review the potential methods to separate the part of this correlation that captures the causal link from immigrants to native labor outcomes and we show estimates obtained with 2SLS method using the popular shift-share instrument. One fact emerging from all the specifications is that the net growth of immigrant labor has a zero to positive correlation with changes in native wages and native employment, in aggregate and by skill group. We briefly review the literature on the channels and the mechanisms that allow local economies to absorb immigrants with no negative (and possibly positive) impact on the labor demand for natives.

Suggested Citation

  • Basso, Gaetano & Peri, Giovanni, 2015. "The Association between Immigration and Labor Market Outcomes in the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 9436, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp9436
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    1. Is globalization to blame?
      by chris in Stumbling and Mumbling on 2016-11-11 19:43:16

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    2. Anthony Edo, 2017. "The Impact of Immigration on Wage Dynamics: Evidence from the Algerian Independence War," CESifo Working Paper Series 6595, CESifo.
    3. Rosa Sanchis-Guarner, 2017. "Decomposing the impact of immigration on house prices," Working Papers 2017/14, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    4. Baum, Christopher F & Lööf, Hans & Stephan, Andreas, 2018. "Economic impact of STEM immigrant workers," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 472, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    5. Edo, Anthony & Giesing, Yvonne & Öztunc, Jonathan & Poutvaara, Panu, 2019. "Immigration and electoral support for the far-left and the far-right," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 99-143.
    6. Stefano Fusaro & Enrique López-Bazo, 2018. "“The Impact of Immigration on Native Employment: Evidence from Italy”," IREA Working Papers 201822, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Sep 2018.
    7. Rutledge, Zachariah & Mérel, Pierre, 2017. "The Effect of Immigration on Native Workers: Evidence from the US Construction Sector," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 259172, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    8. Anthony Edo & Lionel Ragot & Hillel Rapoport & Sulin Sardoschau & Andreas Steinmayr, 2018. "The Effects of Immigration in Developed Countries: Insights from Recent Economic Research," CEPII Policy Brief 2018-22, CEPII research center.
    9. Anthony Edo & Lionel Ragot & Hillel Rapoport & Sulin Sardoschau & Andreas Steinmayr & Arthur Sweetman, 2020. "An introduction to the economics of immigration in OECD countries," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(4), pages 1365-1403, November.
    10. Gaetano Basso & Giovanni Peri & Ahmed S. Rahman, 2020. "Computerization and immigration: Theory and evidence from the United States," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(4), pages 1457-1494, November.
    11. Forrester, Andrew C. & Powell, Benjamin & Nowrasteh, Alex & Landgrave, Michelangelo, 2019. "Do immigrants import terrorism?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 529-543.
    12. Fernando Rios-Avila & Gustavo Canavire-Bacarreza, 2020. "The Effect of Immigration on Labor Market Transitions of Native-Born Unemployed in the United States," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 295-331, September.
    13. Edo, Anthony & Rapoport, Hillel, 2019. "Minimum wages and the labor market effects of immigration," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    14. Noe Wiener, 2019. "Diversity in Segmention. Patterns of Immigrant Competition in US Labor Markets," Working Papers 1901, New School for Social Research, Department of Economics.
    15. Hausmann, Ricardo & Obach, Juan & Santos, Miquel Angel, 2016. "Special Economic Zones in Panama: A Critical Assessment," Working Paper Series rwp16-044, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    16. Kirill Borusyak & Peter Hull, 2020. "Non-Random Exposure to Exogenous Shocks: Theory and Applications," Working Papers 2020-130, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
    17. Alexandre Padilla & Nicolás Cachanosky, 2018. "The Grecian horse: does immigration lead to the deterioration of American institutions?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 174(3), pages 351-405, March.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    immigration; employment; wages; labor markets;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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