Public-Private Entanglement: Entrepreneurship in a Hybrid Political Order, the Case of Lebanon
The instability and informality that characterize hybrid political orders and its effects on entrepreneurs remains largely unexplored in the scholarly literatures. In this paper we provide initial findings from the case of entrepreneurs' access to electricity in Lebanon. Using quantitative and qualitative methods we find that political connections significantly influence the investment decisions of entrepreneurs and the performance of their firms. In general, a hybrid political order imposes a 'tax' on entrepreneurship by channelling entrepreneurial talent into lobbying and bribery; by reinforcing male and family-owned dominance in business; and by skewing investment decisions. Specifically, we find that family firms whose entrepreneurs engage in bribery, and who obtain government contracts alleviate electricity problems and perform better.
|Date of creation:||Dec 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Foster, Vivien & Steinbuks, Jevgenijs, 2009. "Paying the price for unreliable power supplies : in-house generation of electricity by firms in Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4913, The World Bank.
- Francesco Quatraro & Marco Vivarelli, 2014.
"Drivers of entrepreneurship and post-entry performance of newborn firms in developing countries,"
- Francesco Quatraro & Marco Vivarelli, 2015. "Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 30(2), pages 277-305.
- Quatraro, Francesco & Vivarelli, Marco, 2013. "Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-Entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 7436, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Quatraro, Francesco & Vivarelli, Marco, 2014. "Drivers of entrepreneurship and post-entry performance of newborn firms in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7074, The World Bank.
- Alex Coad & Agustí Segarra & Mercedes Teruel, 2010.
"Like milk or wine: Does firm performance improve with age?,"
XREAP2010-10, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Sep 2010.
- Coad, Alex & Segarra, Agustí & Teruel, Mercedes, 2013. "Like milk or wine: Does firm performance improve with age?," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 173-189.
- Alex Coad & Agustí Segarra & Mercedes Teruel, 2010. "Like milk or wine: Does firm performance improve with age?," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2010-06, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
- Coad, Alex & Segarra Blasco, Agustí & Teruel Carrizosa, Mercedes, 2010. "Like milk or wine: Does firm performance improve with age?," Working Papers 2072/179572, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
- Philippe Alby & Jean-Jacques Dethier & Stéphane Straub, 2013. "Firms Operating under Electricity Constraints in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 27(1), pages 109-132.
- Douglas Gollin, 2001.
"Nobody's Business but My Own: Self Employment and Small Enterprise in Economic Development,"
Center for Development Economics
172, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Gollin, Douglas, 2008. "Nobody's business but my own: Self-employment and small enterprise in economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 219-233, March.
- Stel, Nora, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and innovation in a hybrid political order: The case of Lebanon," MERIT Working Papers 078, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Tilman T. Brück & Wim W. Naudé & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Business under Fire: Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/167759, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Alex Coad & Jaganaddha Tamvada, 2012. "Firm growth and barriers to growth among small firms in India," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 383-400, September.
- Tobias Hagmann & Markus V. Hoehne, 2009. "Failures of the state failure debate: Evidence from the Somali territories," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(1), pages 42-57.
- Berry, Chris & Forder, Ali & Sultan, Sonya & Moreno-Torres, Magui, 2004. "Approaches To Improving The Delivery Of Social Services In Difficult Environments," PRDE Working Papers 12823, Department for International Development (DFID) (UK).
- Naudé, Wim, 2010. "Promoting Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: Policy Challenges," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Working Paper P, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Naude, Wim & Santos-Paulino, Amelia U. & McGillivray, Mark, 2008. "Fragile States," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Dagher, Leila & Ruble, Isabella, 2011. "Modeling Lebanon’s electricity sector: Alternative scenarios and their implications," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 4315-4326.
- Baumol, William J, 1990. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 893-921, October.
- Reinikka, Ritva & Svensson, Jakob, 2002. "Coping with poor public capital," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 51-69, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7795. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.