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Empowering Women through Education and Influence: An Evaluation of the Indian Mahila Samakhya Program

  • Kandpal, Eeshani

    ()

    (World Bank)

  • Baylis, Kathy

    ()

    (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

  • Arends-Kuenning, Mary P.

    ()

    (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

This paper shows that participation in a community-level female empowerment program in India significantly increases participants' physical mobility, political participation, and access to employment. The program provides support groups, literacy camps, adult education classes, and vocational training. We use truncation-corrected matching and instrumental variables on primary data to disentangle the program's mechanisms, separately considering its effect on women who work, and those who do not work but whose reservation wage is increased by participation. We also find significant spillover effects on non-participants relative to women in untreated districts.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6347.

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Length: 54 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6347
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  1. Katsushi Imai & Per A. Eklund, 2008. "Women's Organizations and Social Capital to Reduce Prevalence of Child Malnutrition in Papua New Guinea," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 209-233.
  2. Neelakantan, Urvi & Tertilt, Michèle, 2008. "A note on marriage market clearing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 103-105, November.
  3. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. & Imbens, Guido, 2009. "Recent Developments in the Econometrics of Program Evaluation," Scholarly Articles 3043416, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  4. Edwin Leuven & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing," Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 19 Jan 2015.
  5. Handa, Sudhanshu, 1996. "Expenditure behavior and children's welfare: An analysis of female headed households in Jamaica," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 165-187, June.
  6. Austin Nichols, 2009. "Causal inference," DC09 Stata Conference 8, Stata Users Group.
  7. Eeshani Kandpal & Kathy Baylis, 2013. "Expanding Horizons: Can Women's Support Groups Diversify Peer Networks in Rural India?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 95(2), pages 360-367.
  8. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
  9. Phipps, S.A. & Burton, P.S., 1992. "What's Mine is Yours?: The Influence of Male and Female Incomes on Patterns of Household Expenditure," Department of Economics at Dalhousie University working papers archive 92-12, Dalhousie, Department of Economics.
  10. Quisumbing, Agnes R. & de la Briere, Benedicte, 2000. "Women's assets and intrahousehold allocation in rural Bangladesh," FCND discussion papers 86, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  11. Mas-Colell, Andreu & Whinston, Michael D. & Green, Jerry R., 1995. "Microeconomic Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195102680, March.
  12. Anderson, Siwan & Eswaran, Mukesh, 2009. "What determines female autonomy? Evidence from Bangladesh," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 179-191, November.
  13. Janssens, Wendy, 2010. "Women's Empowerment and the Creation of Social Capital in Indian Villages," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 974-988, July.
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