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Multiple Glass Ceilings

  • Russo, Giovanni


    (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop))

  • Hassink, Wolter


    (Utrecht University)

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    Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a pervasive phenomenon. In the Netherlands it affects about 88% of jobs, and 81% of Dutch women in employment work in job levels where a glass ceiling is present.

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    Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 5828.

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    Length: 26 pages
    Date of creation: Jun 2011
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published in: Industrial Relations, 2012, 51 (4), 892–915
    Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5828
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    1. Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L. & Bryan, Mark L., 2004. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution," IZA Discussion Papers 1373, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Belkacem Abdous & Bruno Remillard, 1995. "Relating quantiles and expectiles under weighted-symmetry," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 371-384, June.
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    5. Hiau Joo Kee, 2006. "Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor? Exploring the Australian Gender Pay Gap," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 82(259), pages 408-427, December.
    6. Groot, Wim & van den Brink, Henriette Maassen, 1996. "Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 221-226, November.
    7. James Albrecht & Anders Bjorklund & Susan Vroman, 2003. "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 145-177, January.
    8. Pendakur Krishna & Pendakur Ravi & Woodcock Simon D., 2008. "A Representation Index: Measuring the Representation of Minorities in the Income Distribution," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-21, October.
    9. Randall S. Brown & Marilyn Moon & Barbara S. Zoloth, 1980. "Incorporating Occupational Attainment in Studies of Male-Female Earnings Differentials," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(1), pages 3-28.
    10. Newey, Whitney K & Powell, James L, 1987. "Asymmetric Least Squares Estimation and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 819-47, July.
    11. Cobb-Clark, Deborah A., 2001. "Getting Ahead: The Determinants of and Payoffs to Internal Promotion for Young U.S. Men and Women," IZA Discussion Papers 288, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. McCue, Kristin, 1996. "Promotions and Wage Growth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(2), pages 175-209, April.
    13. Illoong Kwon & Eva Meyersson Milgrom & Seiwoon Hwang, 2010. "Cohort Effects in Promotions and Wages: Evidence from Sweden and the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(3).
    14. Sara Rica & Juan Dolado & Vanesa Llorens, 2008. "Ceilings or floors? Gender wage gaps by education in Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 777-778, July.
    15. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
    16. Sara Rica & Juan Dolado & Vanesa Llorens, 2008. "Ceilings or floors? Gender wage gaps by education in Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 751-776, July.
    17. Michael R. Pergamit & Jonathan R. Veum, 1999. "What is a promotion?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(4), pages 581-601, July.
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