Reducing Hours of Work: Does Overtime Act as a Brake Upon Employment Growth? An Analysis by Gender for the Case of Italy
In recent years the question of overtime work has become increasingly relevant as part of the wider issue of the reduction in the working day. A direct relation between policies aiming at reducing working hours, and increases in overtime work neutralising their beneficial effects on employment, has been envisaged by those opposing such policies. We investigate this issue using microdata by the Bank of Italy. In Italy, the incidence of overtime work among male dependent workers is relatively high. In particular, we seek to ascertain if, for Italy too, the fear that a reduction in working hours could give rise to a substitution of overtime work for new jobs is legitimate. We estimate the probability of working overtime, together with equations for overtime hours of work, using different econometric models, both for cross-section (probit, tobit) and panel data (conditional fixed effects logit). Among several other variables, we control for wages and normal hours. We are particularly interested in exploring differences by sex. Overtime has always been studied over selected samples of male employees working in the private sector. Of course, focusing on workers who are most likely to work overtime will yield the result of a relatively large “substitution” effect. We show that extending the analysis to a more realistic labour market that includes female workers, this effect may become relatively modest for some specific policy measures. This result is robust across different sampling assumptions and model specifications, thus giving support to the hypothesis that the policies aiming at reducing the normal working day may have positive employment effects.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as 'Réduire le temps de travail : les heures supplémentaires agissent-elles comme un frein sur la croissance de l’emploi ? Une analyse par genre du cas italien' in: Revue de l’IRES, 2005, 3, 93-127|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ehrenberg, Ronald G., 1971. "Heterogeneous labor, the internal labor market, and the dynamics of the employment-hours decision," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 85-104, March.
- Jennifer Hunt, 1996.
"Has Work-Sharing Worked in Germany?,"
NBER Working Papers
5724, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bauer, Thomas K. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 1999.
"Overtime Work and Overtime Compensation in Germany,"
IZA Discussion Papers
48, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Bauer, Thomas & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 1999. "Overtime Work and Overtime Compensation in Germany," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 46(4), pages 419-36, September.
- Calmfors, Lars & Hoel, Michael, 1988. " Work Sharing and Overtime," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 90(1), pages 45-62.
- Crépon, Bruno & Kramarz, Francis, 2002.
"Employed 40 Hours or Not-Employed 39: Lessons from the 1982 Mandatory Reduction of the Workweek,"
IZA Discussion Papers
416, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Bruno Crepon & Francis Kramarz, 2002. "Employed 40 Hours or Not Employed 39: Lessons from the 1982 Mandatory Reduction of the Workweek," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(6), pages 1355-1389, December.
- Crépon, Bruno & Kramarz, Francis, 2000. "Employed 40 Hours or Not Employed 39: Lessons from the 1982 Mandatory Reduction of the Workweek," CEPR Discussion Papers 2358, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Calmfors, Lars, 1985. "Work sharing, employment and wages," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 293-309.
- Chamberlain, Gary, 1980. "Analysis of Covariance with Qualitative Data," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 225-38, January.
- Frederiksen, A. & Graversen, E.K. & Smith, N., 2001.
"Overtime Work, Dual Job Holding and Taxation,"
01-7, Aarhus School of Business - Department of Economics.
- Frederiksen, Anders & Graversen, Ebbe K. & Smith, Nina, 2001. "Overtime Work, Dual Job Holding and Taxation," IZA Discussion Papers 323, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Frederiksen, Anders & Graversen, Ebbe Krogh & Smith, Nina, 2001. "Overtime work, dual job holding and taxation," Working Papers 01-7, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Trejo, Stephen J, 1991. "The Effects of Overtime Pay Regulation on Worker Compensation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 719-40, September.
- Bell, David N.F. & Hart, Robert A., 1999.
"Overtime Working in an Unregulated Labour Market,"
IZA Discussion Papers
44, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Trejo, Stephen J, 1993. "Overtime Pay, Overtime Hours, and Labor Unions," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(2), pages 253-78, April.
- Robert A Hart & Robin J Ruffell, 1992.
"The Cost of Overtime Hours in British Production Industries,"
Working Papers Series
92/1, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
- Hart, Robert A & Ruffell, Robin J, 1993. "The Cost of Overtime Hours in British Production Industries," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 60(238), pages 183-201, May.
- Pannenberg, Markus & Wagner, Gert G., 2001. "Why Do Overtime Work, Overtime Compensation and the Distribution of Economic Well-Being Evidence for the West Germany and Great Britain," IZA Discussion Papers 318, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Calmfors, Lars & Hoel, Michael, 1989. "Work Sharing, Employment and Shiftwork," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(4), pages 758-73, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp557. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.