Children's Schooling and Parental Migration: Empirical Evidence on the "Left Behind" Generation in Albania
This article investigates the long-term effects of parental migration abroad on the schooling of children left behind in Albania. Although parents' migration usually benefits children economically, the lack of parental care may cause relational and psychological problems that may affect children's welfare in the long-term. The phenomenon of children left behind –mainly by fathers – is very relevant in Albania where migration has represented the only viable way to cope with increasing poverty and the absence of public resources for sustaining households’ incomes. Between 1990 and 2005 in Albania 21.7% of children under 18 have been left behind, with an average parental absence of 9.5 months. Using detailed information on family migration drawn from the Living Standard Measurement Survey for 2005, multiple choice models are applied to evaluate the school progression of older children and adolescents. A duration analysis of school participation with both discrete and continuous time models is then performed. The results show that past parental migration has a negative effect on school attendance in the long-term with higher hazards of school drop-outs for children left behind. These results are robust to the use of different econometric techniques and model specifications.
|Date of creation:||Apr 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: Labour, 2010, 24 (s1), 76-92|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kiros, Gebre-Egzbiabher & White, Michael J., 2004. "Migration, community context, and child immunization in Ethiopia," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 59(12), pages 2603-2616, December.
- Calero, Carla & Bedi, Arjun S. & Sparrow, Robert, 2009.
"Remittances, Liquidity Constraints and Human Capital Investments in Ecuador,"
Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1143-1154, June.
- Calero, C. & Bedi, A.S. & Sparrow, R.A., 2008. "Remittances, liquidity constraints and human capital investments in Ecuador," ISS Working Papers - General Series 18735, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
- Calero, Carla & Bedi, Arjun S. & Sparrow, Robert, 2008. "Remittances, Liquidity Constraints and Human Capital Investments in Ecuador," IZA Discussion Papers 3358, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Harold Alderman & John Hoddinott & Bill Kinsey, 2006.
"Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition,"
Oxford Economic Papers,
Oxford University Press, vol. 58(3), pages 450-474, July.
- Alderman,Harold & Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill, 2003. "Long-term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," FCND briefs 168, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Alderman,Harold & Hoddinott, John & Kinsey, Bill, 2003. "Long-term consequences of early childhood malnutrition," FCND discussion papers 168, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Harold Alderman & John Hoddinott & Bill Kinsey, 2004. "Long Term Consequences Of Early Childhood Malnutrition," HiCN Working Papers 09, Households in Conflict Network.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4888. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.