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Children's Schooling and Parental Migration: Empirical Evidence on the "Left Behind" Generation in Albania

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  • Giannelli, Gianna Claudia

    () (University of Florence)

  • Mangiavacchi, Lucia

    () (University of the Balearic Islands)

Abstract

This article investigates the long-term effects of parental migration abroad on the schooling of children left behind in Albania. Although parents' migration usually benefits children economically, the lack of parental care may cause relational and psychological problems that may affect children's welfare in the long-term. The phenomenon of children left behind –mainly by fathers – is very relevant in Albania where migration has represented the only viable way to cope with increasing poverty and the absence of public resources for sustaining households’ incomes. Between 1990 and 2005 in Albania 21.7% of children under 18 have been left behind, with an average parental absence of 9.5 months. Using detailed information on family migration drawn from the Living Standard Measurement Survey for 2005, multiple choice models are applied to evaluate the school progression of older children and adolescents. A duration analysis of school participation with both discrete and continuous time models is then performed. The results show that past parental migration has a negative effect on school attendance in the long-term with higher hazards of school drop-outs for children left behind. These results are robust to the use of different econometric techniques and model specifications.

Suggested Citation

  • Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Mangiavacchi, Lucia, 2010. "Children's Schooling and Parental Migration: Empirical Evidence on the "Left Behind" Generation in Albania," IZA Discussion Papers 4888, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4888
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    Cited by:

    1. Lucia MANGIAVACCHI & Federico PERALI & Luca Piccoli, 2018. "Intrahousehold Distribution in Migrant-Sending Families," JODE - Journal of Demographic Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 84(1), pages 107-148, March.
    2. Sylvie Démurger & Hui Xu, 2011. "Left-Behind Children and Return Decisions of Rural Migrants in China," Post-Print halshs-00625636, HAL.
    3. Irene Mosca & Alan Barrett, 2016. "The impact of adult child emigration on the mental health of older parents," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(3), pages 687-719, July.
    4. Viet Nguyen, Cuong, 2016. "Does parental migration really benefit left-behind children? Comparative evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 230-239.
    5. Démurger, Sylvie & Wang, Xiaoqian, 2016. "Remittances and expenditure patterns of the left behinds in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 177-190.
    6. Lucia Mangiavacchi, 2016. "Family structure and children’s educational attainment in transition economies," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 303-303, October.
    7. Botezat, Alina & Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2014. "The Impact of Parents Migration on the Well-being of Children Left Behind: Initial Evidence from Romania," IZA Discussion Papers 8225, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Masamune Iwasawa & Mitsuo Inada & Seiichi Fukui, 2014. "How Migrant Heterogeneity Influences the Effect of Remittances on Educational Expenditure:Empirical Evidence from the Cambodian Socio-Economic Survey," KIER Working Papers 898, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
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    11. Luca Piccoli, 2017. "Female poverty and intrahousehold inequality in transition economies," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 353-353, March.
    12. Dietz, Barbara & Gatskova, Kseniia & Ivlevs, Artjoms, 2015. "Emigration, Remittances and the Education of Children Staying Behind: Evidence from Tajikistan," IZA Discussion Papers 9515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Bai, Yu & Zhang, Linxiu & Liu, Chengfang & Shi, Yaojiang & Mo, Di & Rozelle, Scott, 2016. "Effect of Parental Migration on the Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Northwestern China," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236806, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    14. Nguyen, Cuong Viet & Vu, Linh Hoang, 2014. "Should Parents Work Away from or Close to Home? The Effect of Temporary Parental Absence on Child Poverty and Children’s Time Use in Vietnam," MPRA Paper 52877, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Kseniia Gatskova & Artjoms Ivlevs & Barbara Dietz, 2017. "Does migration affect education of girls and young women in Tajikistan?," WIDER Working Paper Series 104, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Gassmann F. & Siegel M. & Vanore M. & Waidler J., 2013. "The impact of migration on children left behind in Moldova," MERIT Working Papers 043, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
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    21. Marina Mastrorillo & Giorgio Fagiolo, 2014. "International Migration and School Enrollment of the Left-Behinds in Albania: A Note," LEM Papers Series 2014/13, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    schooling; migration; duration analysis; Albania; children;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • P36 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty

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