The Effect of Enclave Residence on the Labour Force Activities of Immigrants in Canada
It has been well documented that immigrants' clustering of residence in large cities has been associated with the creation of a number of ethnic enclaves. The intensive exposure to own-ethnic population could affect immigrant labour market involvement positively or negatively. However, no extant Canadian research has provided empirical evidence on the sign of these enclave effects. In this paper, I use the 1981-2001 Censuses to estimate the impact of residence in ethnic enclaves on male immigrants' labour force participation rate and employment probability. For recent immigrants who arrived in Canada within the preceding ten years, the intensity of enclave residence is negatively associated with their labour force participation rate, but positively related to their employment probability in all censuses. However, living in an enclave has no significant effect on the labour force activity of older immigrants who have lived in Canada for more than twenty years. Since immigrants could be attracted to areas with more job opportunities and hence enlarge the size of an enclave, the estimated effects from probit regressions might be positively biased. I then use instrumental variable (IV) method to address this endogeneity problem, and the IV estimates are consistent with the probit regression results.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Goel, Deepti & Lang, Kevin, 2009. "The Role of Social Ties in the Job Search of Recent Immigrants," CLSSRN working papers clsrn_admin-2009-12, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 02 Feb 2009.
- David E. Bloom & Gilles Grenier & Morley Gunderson, 1995.
"The Changing Labour Market Position of Canadian Immigrants,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(4b), pages 987-1005, November.
- David E. Bloom & Gilles Grenier & Morley Gunderson, 1994. "The Changing Labor Market Position of Canadian Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 4672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bloom, D. & Grenier, G. & Gunderson, M., 1993. "The Changing Labour Market Position of Canadian Immigrants," Working Papers 9305e, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
- Edin, Per-Anders & Fredriksson, Peter & Åslund, Olof, 2000.
"Ethnic Enclaves and the Economic Success of Immigrants - Evidence from a Natural Experiment,"
Working Paper Series
2000:21, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
- Per-Anders Edin & Peter Fredriksson & Olof �slund, 2003. "Ethnic Enclaves And The Economic Success Of Immigrants - Evidence From A Natural Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(1), pages 329-357, February.
- Åslund, Olof & Edin, Per-Anders & Fredriksson, Peter, 2001. "Ethnic Enclaves and the Economic Success of Immigrants - Evidence from a Natural Experiment," CEPR Discussion Papers 2729, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Edin, Per-Anders & Fredriksson, Peter & Åslund, Olof, 2000. "Ethnic enclaves and the economic success of immigrants - evidence from a natural experiment," Working Paper Series 2000:9, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
- David Gray & Jeffrey Mills & Sourushe Zandvakili, 2003. "Immigration, Assimilation and Inequality of Income Distribution in Canada," University of Cincinnati, Economics Working Papers Series 2003-01, University of Cincinnati, Department of Economics.
- Chiswick, Barry R. & Miller, Paul W., 2002.
"Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrant Adjustment?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
449, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Joseph G. Altonji & David Card, 1991.
"The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcomes of Less-skilled Natives,"
in: Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market, pages 201-234
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Joseph Altonji & David Card, 1989. "The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcome of Less-Skilled Natives," Working Papers 636, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Marianne Bertrand & Erzo F.P. Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1999.
"Network Effects and Welfare Cultures,"
JCPR Working Papers
62, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Marianne Bertrand & Erzo F. P. Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1999. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," Working Papers 9903, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
- Marianne Bertrand & Erzo Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1998. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," Working Papers 784, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Sendhil Mullainathan & Marianne Bertrand & Erzo F.P. Luttmer, 1998. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," Working papers 98-21, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Marianne Bertrand & Erzo F.P. Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 1998. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," NBER Working Papers 6832, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bertrand, M. & Luttmer, E.F.P. & Mullainathan, S., 1998. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," Papers 201, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- Casey Warman, 2006.
"Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Earnings Growth,"
1261, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Bartel, Ann P, 1989. "Where Do the New U.S. Immigrants Live?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 371-91, October.
- Kenneth Clark & Stephen Drinkwater, 2002. "Enclaves, neighbourhood effects and employment outcomes: Ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 5-29.
- David C. Maré & Steven Stillman & Melanie Morten, 2007.
"Settlement Patterns and the Geographic Mobility of Recent Migrants to New Zealand,"
07_11, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
- David Mare & Melanie Morten & Steven Stillman, 2007. "Settlement patterns and the geographic mobility of recent migrants to New Zealand," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 163-195.
- John M. Abowd & Richard B. Freeman, 1991. "Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number abow91-1, October.
- Morissette, Rene & Frenette, Marc, 2003. "Will They Ever Converge? Earnings of Immigrants and Canadian-born Workers over the Last Two Decades," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2003215e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Mussaddeq Chowdhury & Roberto Pedace, 2007. "Ethnic Enclaves And Labor Markets: An Analysis Of Immigrant Outcomes In California," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 25(2), pages 238-249, 04.
- George J. Borjas, 1986.
"The Self-Employment Experience of Immigrants,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(4), pages 485-506.
- Edward P. Lazear, 1995.
"Culture and Language,"
NBER Working Papers
5249, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Madeline Zavodny, 1997. "Welfare and the locational choices of new immigrants," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q II, pages 2-10.
- Baker, Michael & Benjamin, Dwayne, 1994. "The Performance of Immigrants in the Canadian Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(3), pages 369-405, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4744. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.