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Enclaves, neighbourhood effects and employment outcomes: Ethnic minorities in England and Wales


  • Kenneth Clark

    () (School of Economic Studies, University of Manchester, Dover Street, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom)

  • Stephen Drinkwater

    () (Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom)


Ethnic minorities in England and Wales are spatially concentrated in relatively-deprived urban areas. Both geographic clustering and the economic characteristics of ethnically-concentrated neighbourhoods can impact upon the opportunities and constraints facing residents of such areas. This paper explores the relationship between the existence of enclaves and the employment prospects of ethnic minorities in England and Wales. It is shown that there is considerable spatial variation in employment outcomes. There is a lower incidence of self-employment in more ethnically-concentrated urban areas, which contradicts the view of ethnic entrepreneurship as an enclave phenomenon. Unemployment rates are also higher for minorities living in more concentrated areas. Enclaves in England and Wales do not appear to offer many economic benefits to minority individuals.

Suggested Citation

  • Kenneth Clark & Stephen Drinkwater, 2002. "Enclaves, neighbourhood effects and employment outcomes: Ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 15(1), pages 5-29.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:15:y:2002:i:1:p:5-29
    Note: Received: 31 December 1999/Accepted: 27 November 2000

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    More about this item


    Ethnic minorities; enclaves; employment;

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination


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