Visible Minority Neighbourhood Enclaves and Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants
Using Census data from 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996, this study examined the association between living in a visible minority enclave and immigrants' labour market outcomes in Canada's three largest cities. The results showed that the number of such enclaves, defined as census tracts with at least 30% of the population from a single visible minority group (Chinese, South Asian or Black), increased from 6 in 1981 to 142 in 1996, mostly in Toronto and Vancouver. The association between exposure to own-group neighbours and employment was at times negative, but generally not significant. Exposure to own-group neighbours and working in a segregated occupation was positively, but not significantly, associated. Little association existed between exposure and employment earnings. However, there were some important group differences. The associations between exposure to own-group neighbours and labour market outcomes were usually very weak among Chinese immigrants, but often negative and strong among Black immigrants.
|Date of creation:||09 Jul 2003|
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- Borjas, George J, 1995.
"Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human-Capital Externalities,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 365-90, June.
- George J. Borjas, 1994. "Ethnicity, Neighborhoods, and Human Capital Externalities," NBER Working Papers 4912, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Oreopoulos, Philip, 2002. "Do Neighbourhoods Influence Long-term Labour Market Success? A Comparison of Adults Who Grew up in Different Public Housing Projects," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2002185e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- B.R. Chiswick & P.W. Miller, 2000.
"Do Enclaves Matter in Immigrant Adjustment?,"
Economics Discussion / Working Papers
00-19, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
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