Visible Minority Neighbourhood Enclaves and Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants
Using Census data from 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996, this study examined the association between living in a visible minority enclave and immigrants' labour market outcomes in Canada's three largest cities. The results showed that the number of such enclaves, defined as census tracts with at least 30% of the population from a single visible minority group (Chinese, South Asian or Black), increased from 6 in 1981 to 142 in 1996, mostly in Toronto and Vancouver. The association between exposure to own-group neighbours and employment was at times negative, but generally not significant. Exposure to own-group neighbours and working in a segregated occupation was positively, but not significantly, associated. Little association existed between exposure and employment earnings. However, there were some important group differences. The associations between exposure to own-group neighbours and labour market outcomes were usually very weak among Chinese immigrants, but often negative and strong among Black immigrants.
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