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Openness and Technological Innovation in East Asia: Have They Increased the Demand for Skills?

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  • Almeida, Rita K.

    () (World Bank)

Abstract

This paper asks whether the increased openness and technological innovation in East Asia have contributed to an increased demand for skills in the region. We explore a unique firm level data set across eight countries. Our results strongly support the idea that greater openness and technology adoption have increased the demand for skills, especially in middle income countries. Moreover, while the presence in international markets has been skill enhancing for most middle income countries, this has not been the case for manufacturing firms operating in China and in low-income countries. If international integration in the region intensifies further and technology continues to be skilled biased, policies aimed at mitigating skills shortages in the region should produce continual and persistent increases in skills.

Suggested Citation

  • Almeida, Rita K., 2009. "Openness and Technological Innovation in East Asia: Have They Increased the Demand for Skills?," IZA Discussion Papers 4474, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4474
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    Cited by:

    1. Meschi, Elena & Taymaz, Erol & Vivarelli, Marco, 2011. "Trade, technology and skills: Evidence from Turkish microdata," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 60-70.
    2. Ugur, Mehmet & Mitra, Arup, 2017. "Technology Adoption and Employment in Less Developed Countries: A Mixed-Method Systematic Review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 1-18.
    3. Rita Almeida & Marta Faria, 2014. "The wage returns to on-the-job training: evidence from matched employer-employee data," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-33, December.
    4. Zuniga, Pluvia & Crespi, Gustavo, 2013. "Innovation strategies and employment in Latin American firms," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 1-17.
    5. Marco Vivarelli, 2016. "The middle income trap: a way out based on technological and structural change," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 159-193, August.
    6. Vivarelli, Marco, 2012. "Innovation, Employment and Skills in Advanced and Developing Countries: A Survey of the Literature," IZA Discussion Papers 6291, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Chae, ChangKyun & Chung, Jaeho, 2009. "Pre-employment vocational education and training in Korea," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 52186, The World Bank.
    8. World Bank, 2010. "Education, Training and Labor Market Outcomes for Youth in Indonesia," World Bank Other Operational Studies 2914, The World Bank.
    9. Elena Meschi & Erol Taymaz & Marco Vivarelli, 2016. "Globalization, technological change and labor demand: a firm-level analysis for Turkey," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(4), pages 655-680, November.
    10. Holzmann, Robert, 2010. "Bringing financial literacy and education to low and middle income countries : the need to review, adjust, and extend current wisdom," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 56501, The World Bank.
    11. Piggott, John & Sane, Renuka, 2009. "Indexing pensions," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 52445, The World Bank.
    12. Srour, Ilina & Taymaz, Erol & Vivarelli, Marco, 2013. "Skill-Biased Technological Change and Skill-Enhancing Trade in Turkey: Evidence from Longitudinal Microdata," IZA Discussion Papers 7320, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    13. James, Estelle, 2009. "Rethinking survivor benefits," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 52919, The World Bank.
    14. Ilina Srour & Marco Vivarelli & Erol Taymaz, 2013. "Technological Change and Skill-based Employment Disparities: Evidence from Turkey," DISCE - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali dises1393, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
    15. Ilina Srour & Erol Taymaz & Marco Vivarelli, 2014. "Globalization, Technology and Skills: Evidence from Turkish Longitudinal Microdata," ERC Working Papers 1405, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Jun 2014.
    16. Woo, Kye Lee, 2009. "Productivity increases in SMEs : with special emphasis on in-service training of workers in Korea," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 51251, The World Bank.
    17. Haile, Getinet Astatike & Srour, Ilina & Vivarelli, Marco, 2013. "The Impact of Globalization and Technology Transfer on Manufacturing Employment and Skills in Ethiopia," IZA Discussion Papers 7820, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    18. Huasheng Zhu & Junwei Feng & Maojun Wang & Fan Xu, 2017. "Sustaining Regional Advantages in Manufacturing: Skill Accumulation of Rural–Urban Migrant Workers in the Coastal Area of China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-23, January.
    19. Marco Vivarelli, 2013. "Technology, Employment and Skills: An Interpretative Framework," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 3(1), pages 66-89, June.
    20. Vivarelli, Marco, 2014. "Structural Change and Innovation as Exit Strategies from the Middle Income Trap," IZA Discussion Papers 8148, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    21. Alberto Behar, 2013. "The Endogenous Skill Bias of Technical Change and Inequality in Developing Countries," IMF Working Papers 2013/050, International Monetary Fund.
    22. Lord, Janet & Posarac, Aleksandra & Nicoli, Marco & Peffley, Karen & Mcclain-Nhlapo, Charlotte & Keogh, Mary, 2010. "Disability and international cooperation and development : a review of policies and practices," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 56092, The World Bank.
    23. Ugur, Mehmet & Mitra, Arup, 2014. "Effects of innovation on employment in low-income countries: A mixed-method systematic review," MPRA Paper 58214, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Aug 2014.
    24. Ra, Young-Sun & Shim, Kyung Woo, 2009. "The Korean case study : past experience and new trends in training policies," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 53696, The World Bank.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    firm level data; exports; foreign direct investment; demand for skills;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

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