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Wage Inequality in Post-Reform Mexico

  • Chinhui Juhn

    ()

    (Department of Economics, University of Houston)

  • Jim Airola

    ()

    (Naval Postgraduate School)

Using the Mexican Household Income and Expenditure Survey (ENIGH) covering 1984-2000 we analyze wages and employment in Mexico after trade liberalization and domestic reforms. We find that wage inequality and returns to postsecondary schooling increased rapidly during 1984-1994 but stabilized since that period. The end of inequality growth was due to a severe macroeconomic crisis which adversely impacted the better educated, an increase in education levels at the end of the 1990s, and a slowdown in skill demand in the latter half of the 1990s. Between-industry shifts, consistent with trade-based explanations, account for a part of the increase in skill demand during 1984-1994, but these types of movements actually reduced the demand for skill in the latter part of the 1990s. The equalizing impact of trade was offset by within-industry demand shifts which continued to favor more educated workers. The Mexican experience in the 1990s suggests that market-oriented reforms have a sharp initial impact on inequality which dissipates over time. However, the opening of the economy to trade, foreign capital, and global markets also leads to a more long-run increase in the demand for skill.

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File URL: http://www.uh.edu/econpapers/RePEc/hou/wpaper/2005-01.pdf
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Paper provided by Department of Economics, University of Houston in its series Working Papers with number 2005-01.

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Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hou:wpaper:2005-01
Contact details of provider: Postal: Houston TX 77023
Web page: http://www.uh.edu/class/economics/

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