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Does the Choice of Reference Levels of Education Matter in the ORU Earnings Equation?

Author

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  • Chiswick, Barry R.

    () (George Washington University)

  • Miller, Paul W.

    (Curtin University)

Abstract

This paper examines whether the results of the earnings equation developed in the overeducation/required eduation/under-education (ORU) literature are sensitive to whether the usual or reference levels of education are measured using the Realized Matches or Worker Self-Assessment methods. The analyses are conducted for all male native-born and immigrant workers in the US, by level of skill, and by occupation. While point estimates differ, particularly when earnings equations are estimated for the smaller samples of sub-groups of the workforce, the general findings are robust to this measurement issue. Thus, the answers provided to the typical research questions in the ORU literature on the utilization of schooling are independent of the measure of the usual or reference level of education used in the analyses.

Suggested Citation

  • Chiswick, Barry R. & Miller, Paul W., 2009. "Does the Choice of Reference Levels of Education Matter in the ORU Earnings Equation?," IZA Discussion Papers 4382, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4382
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hartog, Joop, 2000. "Over-education and earnings: where are we, where should we go?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 131-147, April.
    2. Chiswick, Barry R. & Miller, Paul W., 2008. "Why is the payoff to schooling smaller for immigrants?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1317-1340, December.
    3. Duncan, Greg J. & Hoffman, Saul D., 1981. "The incidence and wage effects of overeducation," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 75-86, February.
    4. Kiker, B. F. & Santos, Maria C. & de Oliveira, M. Mendes, 1997. "Overeducation and undereducation: Evidence for Portugal," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 111-125, April.
    5. Richard R. Verdugo & Naomi Turner Verdugo, 1989. "The Impact of Surplus Schooling on Earnings: Some Additional Findings," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(4), pages 629-643.
    6. Parvinder Kler, 2005. "Graduate overeducation in Australia: A comparison of the mean and objective methods," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 47-72.
    7. Stephen Rubb, 2003. "Post-College Schooling, Overeducation, and Hourly Earnings in the United States," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 53-72.
    8. Vahey, Shaun P., 2000. "The great Canadian training robbery: evidence on the returns to educational mismatch," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 219-227, April.
    9. van der Meer, Peter H., 2006. "The validity of two education requirement measures," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 211-219, April.
    10. Russell W. Rumberger, 1987. "The Impact of Surplus Schooling on Productivity and Earnings," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 22(1), pages 24-50.
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    Cited by:

    1. Christina Boll & Julian Sebastian Leppin, 2016. "Differential Overeducation in East and West Germany: Extending Frank's Theory on Economic Returns Changes the Picture of Disadvantaged Women," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 30(4), pages 455-504, December.
    2. Chiswick, Barry R. & Miller, Paul W., 2009. "Educational Mismatch: Are High-Skilled Immigrants Really Working at High-Skilled Jobs and the Price They Pay If They Aren't?," IZA Discussion Papers 4280, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Aleksynska, Mariya & Tritah, Ahmed, 2013. "Occupation–education mismatch of immigrant workers in Europe: Context and policies," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 229-244.
    4. Ren, Weiwei & Miller, Paul W., 2012. "Changes over time in the return to education in urban China: Conventional and ORU estimates," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 154-169.
    5. Abbi Kedir & Andri Kyrizi & Francisco Martinez-Mora, 2012. "Signalling and Productivity Effects of Overeducation: Is It Really a Waste of Resources?," Discussion Papers in Economics 12/19, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    6. Pernilla Joona & Nabanita Gupta & Eskil Wadensjö, 2014. "Overeducation among immigrants in Sweden: incidence, wage effects and state dependence," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-23, December.
    7. Chiswick, Barry R. & Miller, Paul W., 2009. "An Explanation for the Lower Payoff to Schooling for Immigrants in the Canadian Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 4448, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Orbay, Benan & Aydede, Yigit, 2015. "Educational mismatch and the cost of underutilization in Turkish labour markets," MPRA Paper 65713, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Chiswick, Barry R. & Miller, Paul W., 2009. "ORU Analyses of Immigrant Earnings in Australia, with International Comparisons," IZA Discussion Papers 4422, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    rates of return; immigrants; skill; schooling; occupations; earnings;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration

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