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Immigrant Child Poverty in Scandinavia: A Panel Data Study

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Listed:
  • Galloway, Taryn Ann

    () (Statistics Norway)

  • Gustafsson, Björn Anders

    () (University of Gothenburg)

  • Pedersen, Peder J.

    () (Aarhus University)

  • Österberg, Torun

    () (University of Gothenburg)

Abstract

Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1993 to 2001 is investigated using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years investigated the increasing proportion of immigrant children with an origin in middle and low income countries have poverty risks that varies from 38 and up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period one third of the poor children in Norway have an immigrant origin, and that corresponding proportion is as high as about a half in Denmark as well as in Sweden. The strong overrepresentation of immigrant children from low and middle income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country, and typically decreases with years since immigration. Multivariate analysis shows that parents years since immigration and education affect risks of the number of periods in persistent poverty. While a native child is very unlikely to spend nine years in poverty, the corresponding risk for a child to a newly arrived immigrant from Turkey was found to be far from negligible. Much of the pattern is similar across the three countries but there are also some differences.

Suggested Citation

  • Galloway, Taryn Ann & Gustafsson, Björn Anders & Pedersen, Peder J. & Österberg, Torun, 2009. "Immigrant Child Poverty in Scandinavia: A Panel Data Study," IZA Discussion Papers 4232, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4232
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Pedersen, Peder J., 2000. "Immigration in a High Unemployment Economy: The Recent Danish Experience," IZA Discussion Papers 165, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Miles Corak & Michael Fertig & Marcus Tamm, 2008. "A Portrait Of Child Poverty In Germany," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 54(4), pages 547-571, December.
    3. Taryn Ann Galloway & Rolf Aaberge, 2005. "Assimilation effects on poverty among immigrants in Norway," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 18(4), pages 691-718, November.
    4. Pedersen, Peder J. & Smith, Nina, 2001. "International Migration and Migration policy in Denmark," CLS Working Papers 01-5, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
    5. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2007. "Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 716-729, August.
    6. Wen-Hao Chen & Miles Corak, 2008. "Child poverty and changes in child poverty," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 45(3), pages 537-553, August.
    7. Daniel T. Lichter & Zhenchao Qian & Martha L. Crowley, 2005. "Child Poverty Among Racial Minorities and Immigrants: Explaining Trends and Differentials," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 86(s1), pages 1037-1059.
    8. Blume Jensen, Kræn & Gustafsson, Björn Anders & Pedersen, Peder J. & Verner, Mette, 2005. "At the Lower End of the Table: Determinants of Poverty among Immigrants to Denmark and Sweden," IZA Discussion Papers 1551, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Barry R. Chiswick & Yew Liang Lee & Paul W. Miller, 2005. "Immigrant Earnings: A Longitudinal Analysis," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 51(4), pages 485-503, December.
    10. Erling Barth & Bernt Bratsberg & Oddbj¯rn Raaum, 2004. "Identifying Earnings Assimilation of Immigrants under Changing Macroeconomic Conditions," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(1), pages 1-22, March.
    11. Mats Hammarstedt & Ghazi Shukur, 2006. "Immigrants' Relative Earnings in Sweden - A Cohort Analysis," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(2), pages 285-323, June.
    12. Deborah Roseveare & Martin Jorgensen, 2004. "Migration and Integration of Immigrants in Denmark," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 386, OECD Publishing.
    13. Jorgen Hansen & Roger Wahlberg, 2009. "Poverty and its persistence: a comparison of natives and immigrants in Sweden," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 105-132, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Elena Bárcena-Martín & M. Carmen Blanco-Arana & Salvador Pérez-Moreno, 2017. "Dynamics of child poverty in the European countries," Working Papers 437, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    2. Matthew Lindquist & Gabriella Sjögren Lindquist, 2012. "The dynamics of child poverty in Sweden," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 25(4), pages 1423-1450, October.
    3. repec:kap:reveho:v:15:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11150-015-9321-x is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Denmark; immigration; child poverty; Norway; Sweden;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination

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