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Perspectives on the Early Retirement Decisions of Farming Couples


  • Väre, Minna

    () (MTT Economic Research, Finland)

  • Heshmati, Almas

    () (Jönköping University, Sogang University)


In the past decade, the European agricultural sector has undergone rapid structural change. Part of that change is manifested in extended early retirement plans. As pensions play a crucial role in determining the characteristics the change, it is important to establish the factors determining the exit from farming among elderly farmers. This study analyses the choice of pension scheme of farmers. The focus is on the effects of farm and off-farm incomes and various offered economic incentives on farmers’ retirement decisions. The results provide valuable information concerning evaluation of existing programmes and the design of future retirement systems and policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Väre, Minna & Heshmati, Almas, 2004. "Perspectives on the Early Retirement Decisions of Farming Couples," IZA Discussion Papers 1342, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1342

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ashok K. Mishra & Barry K. Goodwin, 1997. "Farm Income Variability and the Supply of Off-Farm Labor," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 79(3), pages 880-887.
    2. Ayal Kimhi & Noga Nachlieli, 2001. "Intergenerational Succession on Israeli Family Farms," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 42-58.
    3. Kimhi, Ayal & Bollman, Ray D., 1999. "Family farm dynamics in Canada and Israel: the case of farm exits," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 21(1), August.
    4. Glauben, Thomas & Tietje, Hendrik & Weiss, Christoph R., 2002. "Intergenerational Succession on Family Farms: Evidence from Survey Data," 2002 International Congress, August 28-31, 2002, Zaragoza, Spain 24918, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Stephan J. Goetz & David L. Debertin, 2001. "Why Farmers Quit: A County-Level Analysis," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(4), pages 1010-1023.
    6. Renard, Didier & Molenberghs, Geert & Geys, Helena, 2004. "A pairwise likelihood approach to estimation in multilevel probit models," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 649-667, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Fengxia Dong & David A. Hennessy & Helen H. Jensen, 2010. "Contract and Exit Decisions in Finisher Hog Production," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 92(3), pages 667-684.

    More about this item


    early retirement; farming couple; bivariate probit;

    JEL classification:

    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies
    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities

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