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The Timing of Instruction Time: Accumulated Hours, Timing and Pupil Achievement


  • Bingley, Paul

    () (VIVE - The Danish Centre for Applied Social Science)

  • Heinesen, Eskil

    () (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit)

  • Krassel, Karl Fritjof

    () (VIVE - The Danish Centre for Applied Social Science)

  • Kristensen, Nicolai

    () (KORA - Danish Institute for Local and Regional Government Research)


Instruction time varies among schools, subjects, pupils and grades. This variation is positively associated with test scores and has been used to identify modest positive causal effects for instruction hours in certain grades. We exploit administrative data on delivered and timetabled instruction time in each grade throughout compulsory school for three full cohorts of Danish children, and find positive marginal hours effects on 9th grade test scores using accumulated time which are twice as large as when using 9th grade time only. Effects are largest for low SES households and for boys with non-western immigrant background, especially in the early grades.

Suggested Citation

  • Bingley, Paul & Heinesen, Eskil & Krassel, Karl Fritjof & Kristensen, Nicolai, 2018. "The Timing of Instruction Time: Accumulated Hours, Timing and Pupil Achievement," IZA Discussion Papers 11807, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp11807

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    More about this item


    school resources; test scores; time in education;

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education


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