Social mobility at the top: Why are elites self-reproducing?
This paper proposes an explanation for the decrease in social mobility that has occurred in the last two decades in a number of advanced economies, as well as for the divergence in mobility dynamics across countries. Within an intergenerational framework, we show that a two-tier higher education system with standard and elite universities generates social stratification, high social immobility and self-reproduction of the elite. Moreover, we show that the higher the relative funding for elite universities, the higher the elite self-reproduction, and the lower social mobility. We also analyse the impacts of changes in the weight of the elite and of the middle class upon social mobility. Our findings provide theoretical bases for the inverted-U profile of social mobility experienced in several countries since World War II and to the ``Great Gatsby Curve'' relating social mobility to inequality.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.ecineq.org|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- B. Ben Halima & N. Chusseau & J. Hellier, 2013. "Skill Premia and Intergenerational Skill Transmission: The French Case," Working Papers 285, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Nathalie Chusseau & Joël Hellier, 2011. "Educational Systems, Intergenerational Mobility and Social Segmentation," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 8(2), pages 203-233, December.
- Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013.
"Income Distribution and Macroeconomics,"
2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
- Wojciech Kopczuk & Emmanuel Saez & Jae Song, 2010. "Earnings Inequality and Mobility in the United States: Evidence from Social Security Data since 1937," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 125(1), pages 91-128, February.
- Galor, Oded & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1997.
" The Distribution of Human Capital and Economic Growth,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 93-124, March.
- Galor, O. & Tsiddon, D., 1996. "The Distribution of Human Capital and Economic Growth," Papers 18-96, Tel Aviv - the Sackler Institute of Economic Studies.
- Anders Björklund & Markus Jäntti, 2000. "Intergenerational mobility of socio-economic status in comparative perspective," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 26, pages 3-32.
- B. Ben-Halima & Nathalie Chusseau & Joel Hellier, 2013.
"Skill premia and intergenerational education mobility: The French case,"
313, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Ben-Halima, B. & Chusseau, N. & Hellier, J., 2014. "Skill premia and intergenerational education mobility: The French case," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 50-64.
- Becker, Gary S & Tomes, Nigel, 1979. "An Equilibrium Theory of the Distribution of Income and Intergenerational Mobility," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1153-89, December.
- Blanden, Jo & Gregg, Paul & Macmillan, Lindsey, 2007.
"Accounting for Intergenerational Income Persistence: Noncognitive Skills, Ability and Education,"
IZA Discussion Papers
2554, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jo Blanden & Paul Gregg & Lindsey Macmillan, 2007. "Accounting for Intergenerational Income Persistence: Noncognitive Skills, Ability and Education," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(519), pages C43-C60, 03.
- Jo Blanden & Paul Gregg & Lindsey Macmillan & Lindsey Macmillan, 2006. "Accounting for Intergenerational Income Persistence: Non-Cognitive Skills, Ability and Education," CEE Discussion Papers 0073, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
- Jo Blanden & Paul Gregg & Lindsey MacMillan, 2007. "Accounting for Intergenerational Income Persistence: Noncognitive Skills, Ability and Education," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0307, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
- Jo Blanden & Paul Gregg & Lindsey Macmillan, 2006. "Accounting for intergenerational income persistence: non-cognitive skills, ability and education," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19401, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Graziella Bertocchi and Michael Spagat, 2001. "The Evolution of Modern Educational Systems," Royal Holloway, University of London: Discussion Papers in Economics 01/4, Department of Economics, Royal Holloway University of London, revised Sep 2001.
- Fields, Gary S & Ok, Efe A, 1999. "Measuring Movement of Incomes," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 66(264), pages 455-71, November.
- Su, Xuejuan, 2004. "The allocation of public funds in a hierarchical educational system," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2485-2510, December.
- Steven N. Durlauf, 1992.
"A Theory of Persistent Income Inequality,"
NBER Working Papers
4056, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Benabou, Roland, 1994. "Human capital, inequality, and growth: A local perspective," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 817-826, April.
- Benabou, Roland, 1996. "Equity and Efficiency in Human Capital Investment: The Local Connection," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(2), pages 237-64, April.
- Easterly, William, 2000.
"the middle class consensus and economic development,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2346, The World Bank.
- Easterly, William, 2001. " The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 317-35, December.
- Durlauf, Steven N., 1994.
"Spillovers, stratification, and inequality,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 836-845, April.
- Nathalie Chusseau & Joël Hellier & Bassem Ben-Halima, 2012.
"Education, Intergenerational Mobility and Inequality,"
- Nathalie Chusseau & Joel Hellier, 2012. "Education, Intergenerational Mobility and Inequality," Working Papers 261, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
- Nicoletti Cheti & Ermisch John F, 2008.
"Intergenerational Earnings Mobility: Changes across Cohorts in Britain,"
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy,
De Gruyter, vol. 7(2), pages 1-38, January.
- Ermisch, John & Nicoletti, Cheti, 2005. "Intergenerational earnings mobility: changes across cohorts in Britain," ISER Working Paper Series 2005-19, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Barham, V. & Boadway, R. & Marchand, M. & Pestieau, P., .
"Education and the poverty trap,"
CORE Discussion Papers RP
-1173, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Su, Xuejuan, 2006. "Endogenous determination of public budget allocation across education stages," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 438-456, December.
- Roland Benabou, 1991.
"Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0113, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Benabou, Roland, 1993. "Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(3), pages 619-52, August.
- William Blankenau & Steven Cassou & Beth Ingram, 2007. "Allocating Government Education Expenditures Across K-12 and College Education," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 85-112, April.
- Loury, Glenn C, 1981. "Intergenerational Transfers and the Distribution of Earnings," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 843-67, June.
- Su, Xuejuan & Kaganovich, Michael & Schiopu, Iona, 2012. "College Expansion and Curriculum Choice," Working Papers 2012-25, University of Alberta, Department of Economics.
- Benabou, Roland, 1996. "Heterogeneity, Stratification, and Growth: Macroeconomic Implications of Community Structure and School Finance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 584-609, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inq:inqwps:ecineq2013-312. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Maria Ana Lugo)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.