Educational deprivation of children in Andhra Pradesh, levels and trends
In line with the perspectives of human capital, human development and human rights, this paper conceives education to be the basic right of children and re-christens all children who are not in school including child labourers and `no-where children', as educationally deprived children. It examines the prevalence rate, trends, disparities and factors associated with the phenomenon of educational deprivation of children in Andhra Pradesh. The incidence of this deprivation is examined by using data sources available from Census and the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO). In our analysis it is observed that the incidence of educational deprivation of children is coming down over the period, albeit at a slow pace. The state, during the 1990s, experienced a dramatic change in the decline in the incidence of educational deprivation of children. Children who live in rural areas, who are female by gender and belong to SC/ST social groups are relatively the most disadvantaged. It seems that the location effect dominates the gender and caste effects and the interaction of these factors affects the chances of schooling crucially. The district level analysis shows that the leaders and laggards of educational development during pre-independence or pre-state formation retained their relative positions in the early phases of post-state formation period but these positions changed by the year 1991. Few districts from the backward regions were catching up, rising to the positions of the districts in the developed region and even forging ahead. Nevertheless the regional averages show that the historical legacy of educational development/backwardness still holds. Finally, it is observed that the phenomenon of child deprivation is a rural phenomenon closely associated with agrarian economy.
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