Barter and Non-Monetary Transactions in Transition Economies: Evidence from a Cross-Country Survey
This paper reports the findings of a survey of more than 3,000 firms in 20 transition countries. It shows that barter and other non-monetary transactions (including the use of bills of exchange, debt swaps, barter chains, and the redemption of debt in goods) are an important phenomenon in Russia and Ukraine. Contrary to what is commonly believed they are not negligible in Central and Eastern Europe. The causes and consequences vary significantly between countries, but several conclusions emerge strongly. First, barter and other non-monetary transactions are associated in all countries with financing difficulties for firms. They appear to be helping to assure liquidity in an environment in which contract enforcement (including tax enforcement) is uncertain. Secondly, the use of these mechanisms is not significantly related to the restructuring and performance of firms that use them in most countries except Russia. Thirdly, in Russia and Ukraine the nature of non-monetary transacting is importantly different from elsewhere. It is much more associated than elsewhere with market power and limited trading networks. It is also more costly in terms of restructuring and performance. Firms that barter are less likely to improve their existing products, probably because barter enables them to dispose of otherwise unsaleable goods. They are also more likely to engage in internal reorganisation of a kind designed purely to service existing barter chains. Internal reorganisation is strongly associated with improved performance for firms that do not barter, but is unrelated to performance for firms that do. Overall, in Russia and to a lesser extent in Ukraine (but not elsewhere) the findings are consistent with the hypothesis that economic disorganisation, in the sense of Blanchard & Kremer (1997), means that barter and other non-monetary transactions are both more likely to occur and more damaging when they do occur.
|Date of creation:||2000|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +44(0)131 451 3497
Fax: +44(0)131 451 3497
Web page: http://www.sml.hw.ac.uk/research/cert.htm
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Blanchard, Olivier & Kremer, Michael R., 1997.
3659691, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Olivier Blanchard & Michael Kremer, 1997. "Disorganization," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 38, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Blanchard, O & Kremer, M, 1996. "Disorganization," Working papers 96-30, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Dalia Marin & Monika Schnitzer, 2000.
"Disorganization and Financial Collapse,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
339, CESifo Group Munich.
- Marin, Dalia & Schnitzer, Monika, 2005. "Disorganization and financial collapse," Munich Reprints in Economics 19258, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Dalia Marin & Monika Schnitzer, 1999. "Disorganization and Financial Collapse," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 285, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Marin, Dalia & Schnitzer, Monika, 1999. "Disorganization and Financial Collapse," CEPR Discussion Papers 2245, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Kranton, Rachel E, 1996. "Reciprocal Exchange: A Self-Sustaining System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(4), pages 830-51, September.
- Prendergast, Canice & Stole, Lars, 2000. "Barter relationships," MPRA Paper 33400, University Library of Munich, Germany.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hwe:certdp:0004. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Colin Miller)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.