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Why Has the Border Effect in the Japanese Machinery Sectors Declined? The Role of Business Networks in East Asian-Machinery Trade

  • Kyoji Fukao
  • Toshihiro Okubo

This paper analyzes the causes of the decline in Japan's border effect in four machinery industries (electrical, general, precision, and transportation machinery) by estimating gravity equations for Japan's international and interregional trade. In the estimation, we explicitly take account of firms' networks. We find that ownership relations usually enhance trade between two regions (countries); moreover, we find that we can explain 35% of the decline in Japan's border effect from 1980 to 1995 in the electrical machinery industry by the increase of international networks.

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Paper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series with number d07-238.

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Date of creation: Feb 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:hst:hstdps:d07-238
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  1. Eiichi Tomiura, 2003. "Changing Economic Geography and Vertical Linkages in Japan," NBER Working Papers 9899, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  7. Sanghoon Ahn & Kyoji Fukao & Keiko Ito, 2008. "The Impact of Outsourcing on the Japanese and South Korean Labor Markets: International Outsourcing of Intermediate Inputs and Assembly in East Asia," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd08-001, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  8. Robert E. Lipsey & Eric D. Ramstetter & Magnus Blomstrom, 2000. "Outward FDI and Parent Exports and Employment: Japan, the United States, and Sweden," NBER Working Papers 7623, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2000. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 485, Boston College Department of Economics.
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  11. Richard E. Baldwin, 2008. "Managing The Noodle Bowl: The Fragility Of East Asian Regionalism," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 53(03), pages 449-478.
  12. Fukao, Kyoji & Ishido, Hikari & Ito, Keiko, 2003. "Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and Foreign Direct Investment in East Asia," Discussion Paper Series a434, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  13. Okubo, Toshihiro, 2000. "The Border Effect in the Japanese Market: Gravity Model Analysis," Discussion Papers 2000-08, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.
  14. Mitsuyo Ando & Fukinari Kimura, 2003. "The Formation of International Production and Distribution Networks in East Asia," NBER Working Papers 10167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Yoko Sazanami & Shujiro Urata & Hiroki Kawai, 1995. "Measuring the Costs of Protection in Japan," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 32.
  16. Theresa M. Greaney, 2004. "Measuring network effects on trade: are Japanese affiliates distinctive?," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d04-57, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  17. Ekholm, Karolina & Hakkala, Katariina, 2006. "The Effect of Offshoring on Labour Demand: Evidence from Sweden," CEPR Discussion Papers 5648, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Andrew K. Rose & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "National Money as a Barrier to International Trade: The Real Case for Currency Union," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 386-390, May.
  19. McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-23, June.
  20. Hideshi Itoh, 2006. "The Theories of International Outsourcing and Integration : A Theoretical Overview from the Perspective of Organizational Economics," Microeconomics Working Papers 21891, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
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